Origin of the Theory about Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence
Scientists have shown that a very important distinction between intelligence factors is the one between 'fluid intelligence' and 'crystallized intelligence'. Somehow both kinds of intelligence function inseparably as a part of the knowledge of a person.
In 1987, in a review of the Spearman notion of general intelligence, Raymond Cattell (1941) rejected the unitary g factor model and suggested two categories of mental abilities. Cattell claimed that there are two independent intelligence factors: “fluid” intelligence or gf intelligence, and "crystallized” intelligence or gc intelligence.
The theory was almost forgotten, but resurrected with his student John L. Horn (1966 - the cognitive psychologist and a pioneer in developing theories of multiple intelligence) , who subsequently claimed that Gf and Gc were two of numerous variables, and finally found nine or ten broad capabilities. The hypothesis continued to be called Gf-Gc theory.
Cattell defined the ability to reason as fluid intelligence in his 1987 book, Intelligence: Structure, growth and action because it "has the fluid'' aspect of being directed at nearly every question. He also described the accumulation of information as crystallized intelligence, as it is invested in specific areas of crystallized skills that may be distorted individually without influencing everyone else.
Cattell then extended the GF-Gc model with John Horn to incorporate a variety of other wide-ranging capabilities such as Gq (quantitative reasoning) and Gv (visual-spatial reasoning.
Although there is a positive correlation between all the wide capacity factors in the expanded Gf-Gc model, which allows the extraction of a higher order g factor, Cattell and Horn argued that it is wrong to assume that the broad capacity is underlying by a general factor. They claimed that the factors g calculated from various test batteries are not always invariable. They also maintained that the correlations between tests are not invariant, because only one capability may be tested at a time.
However, a number of scholars have indicated that the model Gf-Gc is consistent with a cognitive concept focused upon g-centered. For instance, a three-stratum intelligence model by John B.
Carroll contains both Gf and Gc, as well as an advanced g factor. Based on factor analysis across a wide range of data sets, some scientists claim that Gf and g are one factor and that the g factors of several test batteries are largely invariant, given the huge and varying batteries.
The information that is acquired via experience, facts, skills and education is the crystallized intelligence. Or in other words, crystallized intelligence is defined as the kind of intelligence "squeezed" out from the process of learning, experiencing, and endeavoring from life.
You mention your current knowledge, facts, abilities and information that you have gained in school or in previous years when you utilize crystallized intelligence.
When you face activities that demand use of previously learned information, including verbal testing in topics like reading comprehension or grammar, you use crystallized intelligence. Throughout one's lifetime, crystallized intelligence is usually maintained or even grown because of the dependence on the collection of information.
Facts and experiences have been founded on the crystallized intelligence As we mature and build new understanding and information, crystallized intelligence is strengthened. This sort of intelligence, you might suppose, tends to increase with age. The more learning and experience you have, the more crystallized intelligence you build up.
2. Examples of Crystallized Intelligence
One way to think about crystallized intelligence is that it’s useful in every sector.
The expertise of an experienced financial manager would be an example of crystallized intelligence. The financial manager gains knowledge and information via time and experience within the policies of the firm, resulting in a permanent cognitive shift.
The information obtained results in a knowledge warehouse which may be used. You would witness crystallized intelligence in action if you asked the finance manager about the rules and procedures she's working on.
In another case, a lawyer who has to remember a lot of information, gain experience and know how to deal with issues quickly. Over the years of learning and observation, crystallized intelligence is obtained, built up and grown.
The information acquired by an airline pilot at flight school and via experience is another example of crystallized intelligence. A great amount of information and expertise is needed while flying a plane. For the pilot to operate a plane safely, crystallized intellect is necessary. For instance, when the pilot has to swiftly understand flight plans and interpret the measurements to control the aircraft, he employs his crystallized intelligence.
A general factor indicator in the Wechsler experiment refers to the notion of summarizing insight as a crystallized intelligence. In any event, the Wechsler scales also believe that the preparation speed, the working memory and the full-scale IQ of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) are components of development studies.
Genetics, brain size and even region of residence have a huge effect on IQ. There are several studies that have shown that in one section of Europe individuals in Jewish countries had higher IQs than in other areas. The significant link between IQ and education has been established in a research by Tambs and colleagues in 1989.
In particular, study team results indicate: the proportion of individuals with the most favorable learning qualities, the capacity to think quickly, make standard calculations and build very compelling arguments as "heads" of the school, of the organization, and so on.
These individuals will be appropriate for high thinking industries, such economics, IT or foreign languages, which, apart from environmental factors, have been recognized as being of gender variance up to 50 IQs.
Fluid intelligence relates to reasoning, analysis, flexibility in thinking and problem resolution. We don't rely on pre-existing information when we employ fluid intelligence. We use logic, pattern recognition, and abstract thinking instead to tackle new issues.
Or, if we meet novel, frequently nonverbal activities such as mathematical difficulties and riddles, employ fluid intelligence. Fluid intelligence also plays a part in the creative process, as in the case of someone collecting a paintbrush or plucking a piano without any previous instruction.
The physiological functioning of Fluid Intelligence. This leads to a decrease in these talents when people start early. According to the Examined Existence Team, fluid intelligence is overseen by the anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and other regions that affect short-term memory and attention.
Fluid intelligence activities include learning, problem solving and pattern identification. Similar to crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence peaks during childhood and adolescence. However, it peaks during the late 20s and starts to decline.
The decline in Gf is attributed to the age-related degeneration of the right cerebellum. Age-specific degeneration of the right brain is the cause of the reduction in Gf. Potential studies indicate brain damage and injury as additional reasons for fluid intelligence degradation.Fluid intelligence reduction can often be found in persons with Autism and Asperger's Syndrome, however in other parts of Gf measuring tests it shows superior findings.
Capacity in work memory has a tight connection with fluid intelligence and is suggested for the different aspects of gf.
The gf and the gc may be connected to two distinct brain systems, according to David Geary. Fluid intelligence involves both the prefrontal dorsolateral cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex and other care and short-term memory systems. The crystallized intelligence seems to work in the brain areas, where long-term memories like the hippocampus are kept and used.
- Training research on working memory and the indirect effect of training on Fluid intelligence.
Since work memory influences gf, training to improve the work memory capacity might have a favorable effect on gf. However, other researchers wonder if the findings of training to increase gf are long-lasting and transferrable, particularly when these approaches are employed by healthy, non-cognitive children and adults. A meta-analytical analysis published in 2012 found "memory training programs appear to produce short-term, specific training effects that do not generalize."
In a series of four individual experiments involving 70 participants (mean age of 25.6) from the University of Bern community, Jaeggi et al. found that, in comparison to a demographically matched control group, healthy young adults who practiced a demanding working memory task (dual n-back) approximately 25 minutes per day for a period of 8 to 19 days had significantly greater pre-to-posttest increases in their scores on a matrix test of fluid intelligence. No long-term follow-up was conducted to evaluate the lasting effects of training.
2. Examples of Fluid Intelligence
It may be beneficial to look at some particular instances to grasp the principles of fluid intelligence. These are instances of how fluid information is used and how it may be examined.
- Identify patterns;
- Solving puzzles;
- Development of issue solving techniques (i.e. the creation of "thumb rules");
- Filtering out unnecessary information;
- Avoiding mentally stable information (i.e. the capacity to think "outside the box" in respect to a problem);
- Solve math problems.
While crystalized intelligence enhances or remains steady at age, fluid intelligence beyond puberty is known to diminish quite quickly. Various research studies have examined whether fluid intelligence may be improved.
Psychologist Susanne M. Jaeggi carried out tests in 2008 with her collaborators, in which 4 groups of young and healthy volunteers carried out a fairly difficult activity (short-term memory) every day. For 8, 12 and 17 days, or 19 days, each group did the job. The researchers observed that the more fluid intelligence individuals received after training, the more fluid the intelligence they were able to enhance. Their study found that fluid intelligence may actually increase via training.
Another research using a similar procedure supported the findings of Jaeggi, however later studies did not reproduce the findings such that the conclusions of Jaeggi's study remain disputed.
The Relationship of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence
The reason why Gf and Gc have to be separated was to explain the cognitive growth of the individual through time. Somehow, the two forms of intelligence function inseparably as a part of the knowledge of a person.
As the Fluid intelligence decreases after adolescence, crystallized intelligence continues to increase during the entire adulthood. Although Gf and Gc are closely linked, they differ in the manner they evolve in their lifetime. At approximately age 20, Gf tends to peak, which then declines steadily.
Gc is constant or rises throughout adulthood, by contrast. A single general component was challenged in that this split development pattern was obscured.Cattell believed that individual variations in central nervous system efficiency were mirrored by the Gf. Gc was the outcome, Cattell believes, of an individual "spending" his/her Gf in life-long learning experiences.
Fluid intelligence refers to the degree of thought flexibility and abstract understanding. The degree at which knowledge and abilities have accumulated over life is referred to as crystallised intelligence. Fluid intelligence is impacted significantly less than crystallized intelligence by the environment and learning experiences.
The first kind of intelligence reflects the genetic element of intelligence to a greater extent. Gf might be regarded to consist mainly of present thinking capacities and problem solving, whereas Gc reflects the result of cognitive processes already performed.
Whilst both intelligences are mutually reliant, they have a distinct relationship. However, an increased Gf can modify one's Gc. Crystallized intelligence does not impact the fluid intelligence of a person. Actually, those with higher GF rates gain a faster rate of knowledge. These results show that a greater learning capacity might have a favorable effect on the individual learning capacity.
Fluid intelligence and Crystallized Intelligence Measurement
Unlike common perception, most IQ tests are aimed at measuring both two types of intelligence. For example, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale is designed with the performance scale and verbal scale to assess fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. When combined, the findings of these two scales are the IQ rating of the individual.
Although most exams cover both intelligences, tests only measure every intelligence. With the guidance of Raven Progressive Matrices, the Cattell Culture Fair IQ test and tests 5 and 15 of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities are evaluated for fluid intelligence. On the other hand, a slew of vocabulary examinations can compute the crystallized intelligence.
While IQ measurement in schools is frequently done to estimate the learning ability of a kid, some business contexts need to be IQ determined. In order for applicants to establish their fluid and crystallised intelligences, the cognitive process profile is administered, even if the markings for the former are mostly the subject of bosses.
In Elliot Jacques' theory of the stratified systems, fluid intelligence in a complex, ambiguous and unpredictable working environment might predict work performance.