Intelligence Quotient

Definition of average IQ

The average IQ is 100 based on technique on the most prominent tests such as the Stanford-Binet and Wechsler tests. IQ tests are often developed and updated to average 100 throughout time.

68% of all IQ values lie between 85 and 115 points, as shown in the above belling curve. There might be a "normal IQ-level" between this IQ average range in essence. However, scholars have sought to categorize the normal IQ score and the higher and lower intelligence levels using a more sophisticated method.

How do IQ scores differ around the world?

Over the years various studies, like Lynn and Vanhanen (2002), Lynn and Meisenberg (2010) and Rinderman (2007), have attempted to determine the ranks of each country in terms of their IQ. In particular, Richard Lynn, the English psychologist, has sought to comprehend and to quantify the world's IQs. 

In 2010 his study resulted in the ranking of 108 nations, according to the results of Richard Lynn and Meisenberg’s research, that certain individuals have structural difficulties with regard to sample size and particular portions of their populations. However, the results did receive some notoriety. The findings were well known with Hong Kong leading the top ranking nations with an average IQ of 108.


Country

Average IQ

Hong Kong

108

Singapore

108

South Korea

106

China

105

Japan

105

Taiwan

101

Iceland

101

Macau

101

Switzerland

100

Austria

100

Liechtenstein

100

Luxembourg

100

Netherlands

100

Norway

100

United Kingdom

100


These are the top ten countries, according to the same study: 

  1. Kenya (as well as Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania) (72)

  2. Zimbabwe (72)

  3. Botswana (71)

  4. Ghana (71)

  5. Zambia (71)

  6. Nigeria (69)

  7. Swaziland (68)

  8. Lesotho (67)

  9. Mozambique (64)

  10. Malawi (60).

However, the research utilized for this data is controversial. This is because only certain population groupings or limited samples by nation have been taken into consideration.

Since then, several investigations have refuted the concept of lower average IQ among individuals in African countries by other researchers. They highlight the fact that the initial team sampled the populations in 2010, which was faulty.

Does the IQ scale range change over time?

Although you may believe that IQ scores (IQ average) are somewhat constant, since they were first recorded in the early 1900s they really showed a consistently higher IQ in most regions of the world. James Flynn initially observed this tendency by comparing IQ test results for the military from the 1950s to those in the 1980s. Since then the Flynn effect has been known. 

Finally, the IQ scores have been found to rise by around 3 points every decade on average. The rise is thought to be due to better logical thinking, troubleshooting, formal training and better nutrition.

Have we gotten cleverer than our ancestors? Probably not. Logically, we are most likely to be thinking about an increase in formal education, enhanced nutrition, improved practice and an increase in immunization.

How is IQ measured?

The IQ test was conducted in the late 1800s. In the first intelligence test, a person reacted to stimuli as rapidly as possible. However, this approach was generally discontinued when the speed check was not properly predicting the intellect of a person.

The work of psychologist Henry Herbert Goddard is a modern IQ test in virtually all parts of the world. The French psychologist Alfred Binet assisted Goddard to translate the English intelligence test. 

Binet utilized this test for the evaluation of fundamental intellectual skills in school students and the diagnosis of mental health. Since then, IQ tests have changed significantly. More than a dozen different IQ tests have been utilized nowadays. 

An IQ test is typically used to assess the reasoning and problem solving capabilities of a person. Some of the most common IQ tests are:

  • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-V)

  • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (WAIS)

  • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

  • Differential Ability Scales (DAS)

  • Peabody Individual Achievement Test

The tests are conducted by authorized psychologists. They generally consist of many components. For example, 15 subtests may be found in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale. 

The diverse aspects of IQ such as math, language, reasoning, memory and data processing are measured in every subtest. Using one of the following approaches, you can compute an IQ once the findings have been collected. The first technique is to divide the age or the IQ by the chronological age of a person and then multiply by 100. The findings will then be integrated into an IQ. The values are modified according to age as well.

The other procedure comprises a comparison process in which the IQ score of a person is compared with the score of others of the same age. The standardization procedure is used to accomplish this technique. 

By analyzing the results for the test taken by a representative sample, standardization is accomplished. Psychometrists can utilize the results to set standards that can be compiled in all individual scores by taking the scores of participants in this sample.

Does this mean we have become smarter than our ancestors? Look, probably not. If we are to think logically, it is most likely due to an increase in formal education, improved nutrition, better exercise habits and an increase in vaccinations.

Why is the IQ test controversial?

Since intelligence tests were created, Average IQ has been contentious. 

Some individuals mistakenly assume, because of their genes and are thus less, that people of particular races, gender and origins possess lower IQs. This knowledge was exploited to promote racial ideologies and eugenics worldwide. 

While there have been reports of a number of specific genes related with IQ, neither gene has a substantial impact. There was no evidence likewise discovered by the American Psychological Association to support genetic explanations for IQ variations across races.

In addition, studies could not detect a difference in the average IQ rates of men and women 

We should also bear in mind that Western Europeans established the concept of IQ and IQ tests in accordance with their own cultural norms. Whether IQ can assess intellect effectively in persons with totally diverse social structures, cultures, convictions and ways of thinking remains uncertain. 

In addition, It is obvious that environmental variables have a major impact on the average IQ. Factors that have been positively linked to higher IQ include:

  • Good nutrition;

  • Regular schooling of good quality;

  • Legislation requiring the enforcement of specific food items;

  • Rules on safe contaminants;

  • Laws establishing safe levels of pollutants, like lead;

  • Musical training in childhood;

  • Higher socio-economic status;

  •  Infectious illness incidence.

The only truly relevant predictor of the average IQ could be discovered to be infectious diseases. Researchers think that since when a kid is unwell, the body uses its energy instead of using it for brain growth to fight the infection.

One study revealed that in malarious persons (an infectious illness carried by mosquitoes) cognitive skills and academic performance were affected in comparison to healthy individuals. This energy is therefore taken away from the energy that would instead be used for brain development. 

A US study revealed that states with an increased prevalence of contagious illnesses and lower IQ are in significant interrelation.

Perhaps what it really means to the person and the wider community in which it works is the most palpable disagreement about the idea of IQ. There is no link between IQ and lifelong success. 

Although IQ may be an essential indication for simplified procedures, it is difficult to measure a human being's total intelligence with a test or a rating since common sense or holistic intelligent understanding are not taken into consideration. People are far more complicated than this and this exam and the number you get is certainly not the only way you can evaluate intellect.

Therefore IQ is not the sole measure of intellect, it is vital to remember. Nations may also be classified according to the ranks of the school tests or the number of prizes received throughout the years. Singapore, for example, boasts the highest IQ but is not regarded as the most intelligent nation in the world. This title goes to Japan, where the number of former Nobel Prizes was granted and the highest rating of school tests is.