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16 Personality Types by Myers-Briggs

Have you ever wondered what those mysterious-sounding letters could mean when you heard someone describe themselves as an INTJ or an ESTP? These individuals are referring to their Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality type (MBTI). 

This article describes the 16 different MBTI types, how they were developed, and how the Myers-Briggs personality typing system functions.

MBTI definition and meaning

I. What is the MBTI?

1. MBTI definition and meaning

The Myers-Briggs test Indicator, also referred to as the MBTI or Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, is a self-evaluation tool used to identify personality types. There are specific and multiple answers to choose from for each question in this forced-choice survey, but only one of the two options can be chosen. There are more than 90 questions in total, and there are no "not applicable" options. 

What is the MBTI?

Usually administered online, the MBTI can take up to 30 minutes to complete. When finished, the test gives you a four-letter code that describes your personality type and provides details about your preferences, strengths, and weaknesses. 

The test was created by a woman named Isabel Myers and her mother, Katherine Cook Briggs, using the theories of psychologist Carl Jung (Woods, 2021). Analytical psychology, which helps people understand one another and themselves, was founded by Jung. He also contributed to the definition of the traits of introverts and extroverts (Neher, 1996).

During World War II, the Myers-Briggs personality test was created to promote communication among medical professionals, particularly nurses.

2. Advantages and Drawbacks of MBTI

Benefits of MBTI

  • Companies can use this knowledge to improve employee support, evaluate management abilities, and promote teamwork. Coaches can use it to comprehend their preferred coaching style. 
  • Teachers can evaluate students' learning preferences 
  • Teenagers and young adults can better comprehend their communication, social interaction, and learning preferences. 
  • Individuals can gain insight into their behavior, teens can decide which career path might be best for them, and couples can better understand one another, resulting in more productive partnerships.

Criticisms of MBTI

The MBTI has come under fire as a pseudoscience, and neither psychologists nor other experts in the field frequently support it. Some of these criticisms consist of: 

  • Since the concept of a type is not supported by psychometric assessment research, which instead demonstrates that most people lie close to the middle of a continuous curve, there is little scientific support for the dichotomies. 
  • The psychological types developed by Carl Jung were not based on any controlled studies, and many of the studies that support the MBTI are methodologically dubious or unscientific, so the scales exhibit only moderate validity. 
  • As people might be motivated to fake their responses to achieve a socially desirable personality type, bias is highly likely to occur. 
  • The test's test-retest reliability is low (test-takers who retake it frequently test as a different type), and the MBTI is ambiguous terminology makes it possible for any behavior to correspond to any personality type.

II - Understand about 4 dichotomies of MBTI

It's significant to remember that there are shades of gray within these categories. A scale, that is. You are categorized based on which side of the scale you lean toward, but that doesn't mean you don't share some traits with the category to the contrary. Let's examine the meanings of each letter. 

There are four dichotomies : 

1. Extraversion (E) vs. introversion (I)

Do you prefer to concentrate on the external or the internal world? 

This represents an energy unit. What gives you energy? What makes you feel tired? Is being surrounded by people stimulating? If so, you might have a stronger tendency toward extraversion. Do you feel more energized when you're by yourself? You might be more reserved. 

This dichotomy describes how people react, engage with one another, and situate themselves in their environment. Extraverts are typically action-oriented, focusing on other people and things, getting energized by other people, and radiating energy in all directions. Thoughts are more important to introverts. After spending time alone, they feel rejuvenated and enjoy engaging in deep and meaningful social interactions. 

2. Sensing (S) vs. intuition (N) 

Do you favor considering people and unique circumstances before logic and consistency when making decisions?

This category describes a person's preferred method of information gathering and assimilation (Woods, 2021). Before making a choice, those who are more sensitive like to see, touch, taste, hear, and feel all relevant information. People with greater intuition consider the big picture. They notice patterns before the details, whereas sensing prefers to put the pieces together to form the overall picture.

Understand about 4 dichotomies of MBTI

3. Intuition (N) vs. Sensing (S)

Do you favor concentrating on the fundamental knowledge you absorb or do you favor interpreting and adding meaning? 

The way that people gather and interpret information is described by this dichotomy. Sensing-dominant people typically prefer to concentrate on facts and details and experience the world through their five senses. People who think intuitively tend to be more abstract thinkers who concentrate on patterns, feelings, and potential outcomes.

4. Perceiving (P) vs. Judging (J) 

Do you prefer to make decisions up front or do you prefer to be flexible as you deal with the outside world? 

This dichotomy explains how people typically behave in social situations and identifies the distinctive attitudes of the functions. Judgment-dominant people tend to be more methodical and results-driven, and they favor structure and decision-making. People who are perceiving dominance are more flexible and adaptable, and they frequently excel at multitasking.

III. The 16 Myers-Briggs personalities types

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator gave rise to the framework of 16 personalities (MBTI). We need to first understand MBTI in order to comprehend 16 personalities. 

The earlier and more well-known framework for analyzing personality is MBTI. It sheds light on how people think, process data, and communicate with others. 

Individuals first take a test to measure four aspects of personality. They then receive the test results in the form of a four-letter identification number. This identifier provides information about your energy use, information processing, decision-making, and worldview. The following can be used to frame these dimensions: 

Comparing introversion and extraversion:

  • Smell vs. Gut Feeling 
  • Think versus feel 
  • Assessing versus Perceiving 

In 16 personalities, however, there is an additional dimension of identity. This factor determines whether a person is assertive or turbulent. 

Together with her mother Katharine Cook Briggs, Isabel Briggs Myers created the MBTI. There are a number of for-profit services offered by the MBTI Foundation, including consulting and certification. People who have completed the MBTI Certification program give the test. Additionally, individuals can pay to take the on the MBTI website. 

The 16 Myers-Briggs personalities types

16 personalities is unique in that anyone can take the test for free on the 16 personalities website. Additionally, unlike the MBTI, no consulting or certification is offered. The majority of the resources are free and accessible via the website. There is a cost for additional resources like instruction manuals and learning modules.

1. ISTJ - The Logistician

These people are typically reserved, somber, and serious. They value structure and organization, and they are very meticulous. 

They like to have things planned out in advance and emphasize following the law and tradition. They can be described as reliable and trustworthy because they are responsible, realistic, and reliable. 

2. ISFJ - The Defender

They are warm, trustworthy, and reserved people. They are dedicated to carrying out their duties and are service and work oriented. 

They are devoted, considerate, and heavily concerned with the welfare of others. They value an environment that is calm and harmonious and avoid confrontation. 

3. INFJ - The Advocate

This personality type is serious, rational, and diligent. They are also reserved, considerate, and compassionate. 

Although they value close, profound connections and are perceptive to others' needs, they also require time and space alone to refuel. 

4. INTJ - The Architect

These individuals value independence, self-confidence, and working independently. They are driven, logical, analytical, and creative. 

They can be thought of as perfectionists because they prioritize logic and facts over emotion. 

They frequently have high standards for both their own and other people's performance and competence. 

5. ISTP - The Crafter

This personality type is fearless and self-reliant. Risk-taking, new experiences, and adventure are things they adore. 

They frequently come across as insensitive or stoic due to their tendency to be quiet observers who are not attuned to the emotional states of others. 

They are goal-oriented, moving swiftly to identify workable fixes and comprehend the underlying causes of real-world issues. 

6. ISFP - The Artist

These people are reserved, amiable, laid-back, and sensitive. They have a strong desire for private time and solitude to refuel. Spending time with smaller, more intimate groups of close friends and family is something they value highly. 

They are steadfast in their commitment to their values and the people who are significant to them, and they are very considerate and accepting. 

7. INFP - The Mediator

These individuals are imaginative, idealistic, loyal, and caring. They have high moral standards and are always looking for new ways to better understand people and serve humanity. 

They prioritize their family and their home, and they prefer to communicate with a small number of close friends. 

8. INTP - The Thinker

This personality type is characterized by quiet, self-control, and analytical behavior. They tend to be strong in logic and math and are very interested in how things work and how to solve problems. 

Instead of engaging in social interaction, they are more interested in concepts and ideas. They can be a challenge to get to know, but they are devoted and affectionate to their closest friends and family. 

9. ESTP - The Persuader

These people are action-oriented and adopt practical strategies to get things done and find quick solutions to issues. They frequently exhibit sophistication, charm, and spontaneity. 

They enjoy socializing with a large group of friends and acquaintances and are outgoing and vivacious. They prioritize the present moment and favor the concrete over the abstract. 

10. ESFP - The Entertainer

These people frequently exude energy from others and are gregarious, impulsive, and outgoing. They take pleasure in being the center of attention and collaborating with others in novel settings. 

They can be characterized as laid back, enjoyable, and upbeat. They enjoy learning through interactive experiences with others and are impulsive and moment-focused. 

11. ENFP - The Champion

These people have a lot of imagination and are very enthusiastic, creative, and active. They are great at communicating with others, getting along with them, and showing others support. 

They do, however, look for other people's approval. They value expression of feelings. They struggle with disorganization and procrastination and dislike routine. 

12. ENTP - The Debater

This personality type is characterized by creativity, boldness, and energy. They are idea-driven and more concerned with the future than with the here and now. 

They love to converse with a wide range of people and debate with other people. Although they frequently get along well with others, they can also be argumentative. They make good entrepreneurs and have great conversation skills.

13. ESTJ - The Director

They are organized, practical, and responsible. They are confident and like to be in charge, concentrating on getting things done as quickly as they can. They have clear expectations and give rules and tradition a high priority. 

They are forceful in carrying out their plans, which can be perceived as being rigid, obstinate, or bossy. However, because they are dependable, hardworking, and self-assured, they frequently excel at putting plans into action. 

14. ESFJ - The Caregiver

These people have a good disposition, are responsible, and get along with others. They tend to be optimistic and wear their hearts on their sleeves. 

They like to lend a hand and give people the care they require, but they also want to be recognized for their efforts. They are adept in situations requiring interpersonal interaction and community because they pay close attention to others. 

15. ENFJ - Protagonist

These people are dependable, friendly, and devoted. They are incredibly sensitive to other people's feelings and are able to make friends with just about anyone. 

They get personal satisfaction from assisting others, and they have a desire to see others reach their full potential. They typically make good leaders because they excel at fostering consensus among various groups of people. 

16. ENTJ - The Commander

These people enjoy taking the lead. They value structure and organization, as well as long-term planning and goal-setting. 

They enjoy interacting with others and have strong people skills, but they may not always be aware of their own or others' emotions. 

They typically make excellent administrators, captains, and executives because they have strong leadership qualities.

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) can reveal a lot about your personality, which is likely why it has become so well-liked. You probably immediately recognize some of these tendencies in yourself, even without completing the official questionnaire. 

Recognizing your own strengths and being aware of the strengths of others can be very helpful when working in groups, whether at school or at work. You might come to the realization that certain group members are talented and skilled at performing specific tasks as you work together to complete a project. The group can more effectively assign tasks and cooperate to accomplish their objectives by recognizing these differences.

IV. 4 Groups of 16 Personalities types

The 16 personalities can be categorized into the following 4 general groups: analysts, diplomats, sentinels, and explorers. The general groups and the corresponding personalities are listed below.

1. Analysts Group






 Strategic and imaginative thinkers who have a plan for everything



Creative inventor; voracious appetite for knowledge



Creative, determined, and always able to find a solution



Curious and intelligent, they can't resist a challenge.

2. Diplomats Group






Dedicated, quiet, and quiet idealist. 



 Poetic, kind, and willing to lend a hand to a worthy cause.  



charismatic and inspiring, with the ability to captivate audiences. 



enthusiastic, inventive, and uninhibited; always finds something to be happy about.

3. Sentinels Group






Reliable, pragmatic, and fact-oriented. 



A warm, devoted protector who is prepared to stand up for their loved ones. 



Outstanding administrators who are great at managing people or things. 



Caring, sociable, and well-liked by others; always willing to assist.

4. Explorers Groups






intrepid and useful experimenters. 



Artist who is adaptable and charming and who enjoys trying new things. 



Intelligent, vivacious, and keenly observant; enjoys living on the edge.



Animated and spontaneous; the life of the party.

V. Other features of MBTI

1. Differences Between MBTI and Other Instruments

One method of personality typing is the MBTI. Systems that classify people according to their traits, tendencies, and other characteristics are referred to as personality typing. The following list of popular personality tests: 

  • The Enneagram
  • The Five Love Languages
  • The Big Five Personality Assessment
  • The Workplace DISC Test
  • Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire

The Myers-Briggs types do, however, differ in some significant ways. The MBTI isn't really a "test," to start with. There are no right or wrong responses, and one kind of answer is not superior to another. The indicator does not attempt to diagnose anyone or assess their mental health. 

Additionally, unlike many other psychological assessments, your results are not evaluated in relation to any standards. The test's objective is to simply provide more details about your particular personality, not to compare your results to those of other people.

2. Reliability and Validity

The Myers & Briggs Foundation claims that the MBTI satisfies accepted criteria for validity and reliability. According to the test's official website, it has a test-retest reliability rating of 90% and an accuracy rating of 90%. While the scale demonstrated strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability, one study found that variations were present.  

Other studies suggest that the instrument's reliability and validity have not been sufficiently established. For instance, according to some research, the test is not a good indicator of success in various careers and that many people receive different results when they later retake it. 

Other features of MBTI

3. MBTI today

One of the most widely used psychological tests in use today is the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator because it is comparatively simple to use. Each year, about two million American adults finish the inventory. 

Although there are numerous online versions of the MBTI, it should be noted that any informal questionnaires you may find online are only approximations of the genuine article. 

A trained and certified professional who includes a follow-up of the results must administer the real MBTI. Today, you can complete the questionnaire online through the instrument's publisher, CPP, Inc., and get a qualified interpretation of your findings. 

The North American version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator currently has 93 forced-choice questions, while the European version has 88 forced-choice questions. There are two options from which the respondent must select for each question.

VI. MBTI personality Test

1. The Myers-Briggs Test's Development

Jung's theory of psychological types captivated Myers and Briggs, and they both realized that the theory could be used in the real world. They started investigating and creating an indicator that could be used to understand individual differences during World War II. 

Myers and Briggs believed that by assisting people in understanding themselves, they could aid them in making better career decisions and leading healthier, happier lives. 

The two women started evaluating the inventory on friends and family after Myers created the first paper-and-pencil version of it in the 1940s. Over the following 20 years, they continued to fully develop the instrument.

2. A description of the test 

People are classified into one of 16 personality types based on their responses to the inventory's questions. The MBTI is designed to help users better understand their own personalities, including their likes, dislikes, strengths, and weaknesses as well as potential career preferences and interpersonal compatibility. 

There is no "best" or "better" personality type than another. It is not a device made to search for abnormality or dysfunction. Its sole purpose is to assist you in discovering more about yourself. Four different scales make up the actual questionnaire.

3. What's the Myers-Briggs test's procedure? 

Jung's theory was modified by Isabel and her mother to produce the MBTI, one of the most well-known personality assessments today. The core of Jung's theory, which this test captures, is that people's differences in mental and emotional functioning account for seemingly random variations in human behavior (Woods, 2021). In other words, our behavior—which is not as arbitrary as we might believe—is influenced by how we think and feel. 

Four opposing pairs or dichotomies were established by the Myers-Briggs test: extrovert vs. introvert; sensing vs. intuition; thinking vs. feeling; and judgment vs. perception (Woods, 2021). When you take the exam, your responses classify you into one of the two opposing pairs, giving you the four-letter code that denotes which side of the scale you fall on. That's your personality type in those four letters. You can take the standard MBTI test here, completely free: https://www.xpersonalitytest.com/free-personality-test

4. Is there any Test with More Reliability Available Than the 16 Personalities?

The four quadrants of personality (DISC)  give rise to a more trustworthy personality test. In the fifth century BC, Empedocles was the author of this concept. Then, in the fourth century BC, Hippocrates asserted that the four personality traits were derived from four bodily fluids. Following that, the four facets of human personality were named choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic, and sanguine by the renowned philosopher Galen in the second century AD. 

This first DISC profile was created in 1956 using the four personality traits developed by industrial psychologist Walter Clark. The test was created with employers looking for qualified candidates in mind. 

The DISC test measures how a person responds predictably to time, tasks, and other situations at home and at work. It is self-administered and self-scoring. 

There are some things that the DISC test does not measure, despite the fact that it offers insight into how a person interacts with their environment. Among these are a person's: 

  • Intelligence
  • Morality/character
  • Levels of ambition or motivation
  • Self-esteem or lack of it

5. How does the 16 Personalities test compare to the DISC personality test? 

When hiring employees, both the DISC personality test and the 16 personality test are used. The DISC test, however, emphasizes: 

  • Developing your interpersonal communication skills 
  • Knowing what drives other people 
  • selecting the ideal candidate for the position 
  • training individuals to identify their natural strengths and weaknesses 
  • reflection on oneself and development

Meanwhile, MBTI and the 16 Personalities are frequently used in hiring. The test is used by hiring managers to determine whether a candidate is a good fit for the position. The test is also used by businesses to learn how to manage personnel or build better teams. 

The test is also taken by a lot of people for self-improvement objectives. The framework offers individuals fresh perspectives on who they are. As a result, individuals use their 16 personality traits to help them identify areas in which they can improve. Take our free personality testing course to learn more about your personality.

VII. How Your MBTI Type Affects Your Financial Behavior

You may have encountered the MBTI at work; organizations occasionally use it to assist employees in understanding who they are and how to best apply their strengths in the workplace. However, it can also be instructive for a variety of other aspects of your life, such as the way you handle money. 

Are you curious about the potential financial effects of your Myers-Briggs type and each letter? Asked psychology and money experts to break down the four main dichotomies and explain how they affect your money-management style, as well as what to watch out for that might impede your progress.

1. Extroversion vs. Introversion (e-i)

The E-I preference pair discusses the sources of peoples' energy. According to Michael Segovia, lead MBTI certification trainer for CPP and publisher of the MBTI assessment, "people who prefer extraversion tend to get their energy from this world of action, people, and things." "Those who value introversion enjoy having time to think, relax, and contemplate in private." 

The Impact on Your Finances 

  • Extroverts: tend to rely on others when making important decisions, living up to their sociable stereotype. According to Segovia, those who favor extroversion are unaware of their own thoughts until they are spoken aloud. That is why they interact with others in this way to bounce ideas off of them. Extroverts may also have a tendency to overspend on social occasions like annual trips with friends or happy hours at the office. They might benefit from spending more time contemplating their financial management practices, for example, by noting how particular purchases made them feel. You might think, "This was a waste," or "I was feeling deprived when I bought this, and now I regret it," says Olivia Mellan, co-author of Money Harmony: A Road Map for Individuals and Couples and a psychotherapist who specializes in resolving financial conflicts. The next time they reach for their wallets, they might do so with more awareness thanks to that realization. 
  • In contrast, introverts:  might spend too much time alone thinking through important financial decisions, arming themselves with a ton of knowledge but failing to solicit potentially helpful advice from others. To make sure they're considering more than just their own point of view, Segovia advises them to run their ideas by a few close friends. In light of this, Mellan advises introverts to get trusted advice from a person they look up to for their financial savvy, such as a financial planner, a friend, or a member of their family.

2. Sensing vs. Intuition (s-i)

Your MBTI personality type is determined by the two middle letters, which reveal how you process information and reach decisions. According to Segovia, "the middle two letters really represent the motivators, the driving forces, of our preferences." 

The dichotomy of information gathering comes first. According to Segovia, sensing "is about ingesting information in a very specific, step-by-step, sequential way." On the other hand, those with a preference for intuition are drawn to learning about the big picture. They want the big picture so they can figure out what it all means later, he continues. 

The Effect on Your Money

  • Sensing: When an E or an I comes before sensing, it can have a different nuance. According to Segovia, those who prefer to sense in an introverted way use their minds as file cabinets where they can access information as needed. The drawback to that is that they might become overly preoccupied with their own "data" and fail to consider other viewpoints. As a result, someone who leans toward being an I and a S should think about being open to trying new money management strategies, especially if they don't feel like they're making any progress on their goals. According to Segovia, people who prefer sensing as well as extroversion "can be so present-focused they might not consider what's coming around the corner." This can translate into focusing excessively on the right here, right now when it comes to money, so it's crucial for people with the E and S personality types to keep in mind how their current choices might affect their long-term objectives. 
  • Intuition: While those who tend toward intuition (represented by the letter N) are likely to have future goals in mind, they may not always be sure how they'll get there. They are not planners; they are dreamers, Mellan claims. She thinks that by putting short-, mid-, and long-term goals in writing, these people might learn to embrace their planning side. Then, she continues, "they have to take action now that will [put them in] planning mode for achieving their goals." They might quickly come up with a step-by-step strategy for moving forward.

3. Thinking vs. Feeling (t-f)

Now let's talk about how you assess the data you absorb: According to Segovia, "thinking is about making decisions taking into account the task at hand, so you can make a logical, objective decision." They might, for example, compile a list of advantages and disadvantages. However, those who take a sentimental approach consider how their decisions will impact those who are close to them. 

The Effect on Your Money

  • Thinking: A person with a preference for thought is logical in all facets of life, including finances. Though that can certainly be a good thing: Thinking people may overthink financial decisions, big and small, and may as a result end up putting some personal financial goals on hold. In this situation, writing again might be beneficial. Write down your goals and the things you've been putting off, advises Mellan. Then, take a look at your finances to determine whether you can actually make it happen. In this situation, she advises that "doing something more in the feeling mode might feel more liberating." 
  • Feeling: On the other hand, those who prefer feeling might let their feelings take precedence over reason when making decisions. Additionally, Segovia adds, even though they are handling their own money, they might try to appease others with their financial decisions. For those who exhibit both introversion and feeling preferences, Segovia advises feelers to push themselves in these situations by seeking out the logical viewpoints of others. Those who tend toward extraversion and emotion may need to examine their motives closely to determine whether they are placing their own needs and financial futures above those of others when making financial decisions.

4. Judging vs. Perceiving (j-p)

The J-P preference pair, in the end, perfectly captures how you arrange your surroundings. According to Segovia, "people who favor judgment like closure." "They enjoy making choices. They enjoy crossing things off lists. 

This kind of person is simple to identify because they "will add it with a check mark [in order to feel that] sense of satisfaction. A person who prefers perceiving doesn't make decisions as quickly as a person who prefers judging might; she prefers things to be spontaneous and open-ended and likes to keep her options open. 

The Impact on Your Finances 

  • Judging: According to Segovia, those who fall under the category of judging might be a little too hasty when it comes to financial decisions because they only want to feel the "joy of closure." One of their weaknesses is that they might make a decision [about money] before they have all the information they require. Getting a second opinion in this situation or delaying a decision a few days to see if any new information surfaces can help people with judging tendencies remain open to different and possibly better options. 
  • Perceiving: The opposite is true for perceiving people; they would benefit from more boundaries as a result of their propensity for laxity and flexibility. The desire to keep your options open might cause you to put off making those crucial financial decisions, according to Segovia.

VIII. How to make the most of your MBTI test results

Look farther

  • You can look at your results and ask yourself questions like: What is my shadow if you've taken the Myers-Briggs assessment and are unsure of how to use it to your advantage. 
  • What am I consciously aware of more or less? 
  • Where am I putting others on my shoulders? 
  • What needs of mine are not being met? 
  • When people aren't like me, why am I expecting them to be? 
  • Ongoing education about working with your type is possible. 

 Discover who you are

Self-reflection is an important skill, and the MBTI can help with that, says Hallett. Start to look for behaviors and thoughts (both positive and negative) that you frequently have using your results as a guide. 

Recognize your advantages and disadvantages

Knowing your type can help you make decisions because each has a unique set of strengths and weaknesses. 

Strengthen your connections

Utilizing the MBTI to enhance your relationships—romantic, platonic, and yes, even professional—is yet another fantastic use for the tool. When you know someone's type, you also know why they act the way they do, making it easier to compromise when there is a disagreement. 

Change as necessary

The results of your MBTI assessment do not mandate how you must always act. The MBTI, on the other hand, reveals areas where you can make the necessary adjustments.