Research Methodology and Statistics


Methodology is "a relevant structure' for analysis, a coherent and logical network focused on visions, values and beliefs that guides choices made by analysts.

Methodology involves a hypothetical overview of the range of strategies and standards relevant to the information department, so that the strategies used in various disciplines vary based on their verifiable advancement.




  • Becker, Howard
    • [1993] Theory: The Necessary Evil 
      In: David J. Flinders and Geoffrey E. Mills (eds.) [1993] Theory and Concepts in Qualitative Research: Perspectives from the Field. New York: Teachers College Press, pp. 218-229.
      Becker explaines why some qualitative researchers in education have begun to question the epistemological premises of their work. 'Attacks on qualitative research used to come exclusively from the methodological right, from the proponents of positivism and statistical and experimental rigor. But now the attack comes from the cultural studies left as well, from the proponents of the "new ethnography," who argue that there is no such thing as "objective knowledge" and that qualitative research is no more than an insidious disguise for the old enemy of positivism and pseudo-objectivity.' But 'Who are we kidding with all this science talk?' And 'Why don't we admit that what we do is just another kind of story, no better or worse than any other fiction?'
    • [2009] Learning to Observe in Chicago
      In: Jean Peneff, La goût de l’observation (Paris: La Découverte, 2009), pp. 60-61, 76-77 and 126-27 (en français).
  • Bulletin of Sociological Methodology (BMS)
    A quarterly scientific journal which publishes in both English and French. Each issue of the BMS contains research articles, extensive book and article reviews, as well as documentation and information on different meetings throughout the world. All research articles have abstracts in both English and French.


Center for Social Research Methods - William M.K. Trochim (Cornell University, USA)
A great resource for every social scientists. The site includes:

  • Knowledge Base
    An online textbook on applied social research methods that covers everything you want to know about defining a research question, sampling, measurement, research design and data analysis. You can add a notation to the actual Web page you were just viewing, and join Bill in becoming a Web author and add information to the Knowledge Base, including URLs to other interesting sites
  • Selecting Statistics
    An online statistical advisor. Answer the questions and it will lead you to an appropriate statistical test for your data. Users can initiate the programme by selecting the number of bariables involved, and continues to respond to the alternatives presented until the analysis is completed.
  • Concept Mapping Research Guide
    Concept Mapping A resource guide for learning about structured conceptual mapping. It includes links to general introductory materials, research and case studies illustrating the use of the method, and information about software.
  • Computer Simulations for Research Design
    A previously unpublished book of manual (i.e., dice-rolling) and computer simulation exercises of common research designs, for students and researchers to learn how to do simple simulations.
  • Trochim Publications
    Several full-length published and unpublished research papers.


  • Essex Summer School in Social Science Data Analysis
    Offers a variety of post graduate level cources. Excellent collection of course outlines and lists of texts for the central aspects of contemporary social science methodology from the summer methods school at Essex, UK.
  • Evaluation Review (ERX)
    A Journal of Applied Social Research. Editor: Richard Berk.


Goodman, Albert (School of Computing and Mathematics, Deakin University, USA)
Introduction to Data Collection and Analysis
Concentrates on the philosophy of science and the relationship of data to theory.



Imai, Kosuke [2011]
Political Methodology: Applied Statistics in Political Science
Department of Politics, Princecton University, USA.


Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) 
The journal of the Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (SEAB).



  • Research Companion, The
    A practical guide for people working globally in the social/health sciences, where people can recommend resources, start debates, ask for advice or offer tips and techniques to make social research easier, more enjoyable and safer. Editor: Petra M. Boynton
  • Resources for Methods in Evaluation and Social Research
    The focus is on "how-to" do evaluation research and the methods used: surveys, focus group, sampling, interviews, etc.
  • Resources for Teachers 
    A selection of some resources that may be of particular interest to you if you teach qualitative and/or mixed methods, or supervise PhD students using qualitative and/or mixed methods in their study. School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, UK.


  • Saint-Germain, M.A.
    Research Methods PPA 696
    Course notes for a research methods medule at the University of California, Long Beach, USA. As notes they are schematic, but quite detailed and very well arranged. Most topics of various phases of there research process are covered: variables and hypotheses, measurement, types of experimental design, sampling, surveys, ethics, statistics, questionnaires, and tests of significance.
  • Social research methods
    A free "teach yourself" tutorial teaching internet skills for those working with social statistics. Ideal for independent learning or for use by teachers and lecturers in their courses. It takes around an hour to do and has quizzes and interactive exercises to lighten the learning experience. Author: Louise Kroon. This is just one of over 60 tutorials within the Virtual Training Suite. All of the tutorials are written and reviewed by a national team of lecturers and librarians from universities across the UK.
  • Social Research Update (SRU)
    A quarterly electronic journal which covers new developments in social research, one per issue. Univ. of Surrey, UK. Methods of doing social research are continually advancing. New developments in information technology enable complex analyses to be carried out on a personal computer. Laptop and computer assisted telephone interviewing change fundamentally the way in which surveys are done. New statistical techniques are being developed which are better suited to the kinds of data which social researchers generally deal with. New approaches to qualitative data raise new theoretical and ethical problems. In face of all this change, social researchers, pressurised to produce results, often do not have time to keep up with the latest developments. It is this gap that Social Research Update attempts to fill. Editor: Nigel Gilbert.
  • Society for Political Methodology 
    The Political Methodology Section of the APSA. The site serves as the gateway to the Electronic Paper Archive. From here you can view abstacts of conference and working papers online and download papers for local printing. It is also the gateway to the newsletter of the section, The Political Methodologist and to the official journal of the section Political Analysis.
  • Sociological Methodology 
    An annual volume on methods of research in the social sciences. Sponsored by the American Sociological Association, its mission is to disseminate material that advances empirical research in sociology and related disciplines. Chapters present original methodological contributions, expository statements on and illustrations of recently developed techniques, and critical discussions of research practice. Sociological Methodology seeks contributions that address the full range of problems confronted by empirical work in the contemporary social sciences, including conceptualization and modeling, research design, data collection, measurement, and data analysis. Abstracts only.

Qualitative Research

  • Action Science Network
    Aims to accurately describe and efficiently demonstrate the theory and practice of action science. Action science is a strategy of organizational development which increases the skills and confidence of individuals in groups to create any kind of organization. Action science was defined primarily by Chris Argyris with important help from Donald Schon and others.
  • American Evaluation Associations
    An international professional association of evaluators devoted to the application and exploration of evaluation in all its forms (such as program evaluation and personnel evaluation).
  • Antropología y Análisis de datos cualitativos
    A personal page by Pablo Gustavo Rodriguez (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina). The site contains some papers (in Spanish), PowerPoint presentations, and some links to resources for social qualitative researchers.
  • Association for Qualitative Research (AQR)
    The voice of UK qualitative research. AQR promotes the professional interests of qualitative research among practitioners and field personnel and within the market area as a whole.
  • Becker, Howard S.
  • Dick, Bob
    Convergent interviewing: a technique for qualitative data collection
  • Dawson, Thomas E. [1997] (Texas A&M; University, USA)
    A Primer on Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design
    A paper on three types of pre-experimental (one-shot case study, one-group pretest-posttest design, and static-group comparison), experimental (pretest-posttest control group design, the posttest-only control group design, and Solomon four-group design) and quasi-experimental designs (nonequivalent-groups design, cohort designs, and time-series designs).
  • Everett, Stephen E. [1992]
    Oral History - Techniques and Procedures
    A guide on conducting interviews.
  • Content Analysis Resources - Georgia Tech, USA 
    Resources for making child's play of sophisticated content analysis.
  • Forum Qualitative Social Research (FQS)
    sA peer-reviewed journal publishing articles relating to qualitative research. FQS wants to promote discussion and cooperation between qualitative researchers from different countries and social science disciplines. German and English version.
  • Handbook of Ethnography
    Learn how to organize participant observation fieldwork.
  • Shaw, Ian / Gould, Nick [2001]
    Qualitative Research in Social Work
    Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Oko, Tomofumi / Shaw, Ian [2000]
    Qualitative Research in Social Work
    A guide to the essential components of qualitative research.
  • Qualitative Report, The 
    An online journal dedicated to writing and discussion of and about qualitative and critical inquiry. It serves as a forum and sounding board for researchers, scholars, practitioners, and other reflective-minded individuals who are passionate about ideas, methods, and analyses permeating qualitative and critical study. The pages are open to a variety of forms: original, scholarly activity such as qualitative research studies, critical commentaries, editorials, or debates concerning pertinent issues and topics; news of networking and research possibilities; and other sorts of journalistic and literary shapes which may interest and pique readers. Editor: Ron Chenail.
  • Qualitative Research Methods 
    Center for Social and Behavioral Sciences Research, University of California, Riverside (USA). It offers some sources for a literature search in anthropology.
  • Qualitative Research in Information Systems
    Provides qualitative researchers in information systems - and those wanting to know how to do qualitative research - with useful information on the conduct, evaluation and publication of qualitative research. Editor: Michael D. Myers.
  • Qualitative Research Page 
    This site contains a list of annotated references about qualitative research and a list of research discussion groups, course syllaby for qualitative research courses. It also provides knowledge resources on what research is, on research ethics, the role of theory in research, research paradigms (genres, methods), information gathering, planning and preparing research, interpretating and presenting research, and more. Editor: Bobbi Kerlin.
  • Qualitative Sozialforschung
    Reviews, actual contributions, dissertations, conferences and seminars on qualitative social research. Created by: Friedhelm Ackermann, Stefan Kanke, and Detlef Pech.
  • QualPage 
    Resources for qualitative researchers. Editor: J. Norris.
  • Ratcliff, Don (Toccoa Falls College, Georgia, USA)
    Qualitative Research Resources
    Notes for a seminar on qualitative research. The site contains a working draft of a booklet on conducting qualitative research using a camcorder: Video and Audio Media in Qualitative Research.
  • Sen, Anindya [2012]
    Humour Analysis and Qualitative Research
    In: Social Research Update, 63.
  • What is Qualitative Research? 
    Provided by the Professionalism Committee of the Qualitative Research Consultants Association (QRCA) to briefly answer the questions most frequently asked of qualitative researchers. What is qualitative research? When should I use qualitative research? What are the limitations of qualitative research? Then why conduct qualitative research? Who should conduct the research? What is a focus group? How many focus groups should I do? Who should participate in the focus groups? What is the usual procedure for conducting qualitative research? How much time is required to complete a qualitative project?
  •  Qualitative Data Analysis Software

Survey Method

  • 2Ask
    A German web service to create and conduct web surveys. The results are analyzed graphically and are also available in SPSS and Excel format.
  • Batinic, Bernad / Reips, Ulf-Dietrich / Bosnjak, Michael(eds.)
    Online Social Sciences
  • Brogan, Donna J. (Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, USA)
    Pitfalls of Using Standard Statistical Software Packages for Sample Survey Data
    An example comparing analyses using standard software to that using software that recognizes special features of survey design.
  • Center for Survey Research - Fort Hays State University, Hays, USA. 
    It does polling to provide decision makers with a powerful tool for policy-making.
  • Frary, Robert B. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA)
    A Brief Guide to Questionaire Development
    Learn how to write clear questionnaires that achieve survey objectives whilst avoiding many common errors in the collection of factual information and opinions.
  • Guide de réalisation de sondages 
    In the sections of this guide you’ll find information on different aspect of a survey: the attitude of a researcher, populations, data selection, etc. Each topic offers a chronological choice. Editor: Frédéric D’Astous.
  • Houshold Survey Nonresponse Workshop
    The focus of the Workshop is nonresponse in household surveys, but it accepts also other aspects (business surveys). The main goal is to bring "adjusters" and "reducers" together and to initiate cooperation on different projects. Most of the participants are actively involved in nonresponse research and the Workshop increases the exchange of ideas.
  • Joint Program in Survey Methodology, The (JPSM)
    A graduate degree program teaching state-of-the-art principles and practices in the design, conduct, analysis and evaluation of sample surveys. JPSM is a consortium of the University of Maryland, the University of Michigan and Westat, Inc.
  • Mugo, Fridah W. (Cornell University, USA)
    Sampling in Research: A Tutorial
    A discussion on sampling in research which is mainly designed to eqiup beginners with knowledge on the general issues on sampling that is the purpose of sampling in research, dangers of sampling and how to minimize them, types of sampling and guides for deciding the sample size.
  • Newsgroups on surveys
  • Online-forschung 
    An open portal for social reseaarch on the internet. Editor: Dominik Leiner (Munich, Germany).
  • Polland, Ronald Jay [2005]
    Essentials of Survey Research and Analysis
    A workbook for community researchers. Lessons in survey design from conceptualizing the problem to analysing the results.
  • Question Bank 
    A resource from the Centre for Applied Social Surveys (CASS), funded by the UK Economic and Research Council (ESRC). The Question Bank contains information on how best to obtain standardised measures of human beings and their attributes using survey questionnaires. One of the main components are copies of questionnaires used in major UK social surveys. It provides easily accessed illustrations of how the topics with which they are grappling have been handled/measured in other professionally designed surveys. The Question Bank contains a large number of questions which have been used in major quantitative social surveys in the UK. The questions are all reproduced in their full original form, including any predetermined response categories, interviewer instructions, etc.
  • Sainsbury, Roy / Ditch, John / Hutton, Sandra
    Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing
    Social Research Update, Issue 3. Instead of collecting data on paper questionnaires, interviewers use portable computers to enter data directly via a keyboard. Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) can be used for face-to-face interviews. Although the use of CAPI in social research is in its infancy and its quantitative impact on the quality of data is largely unknown, the authors argue that the promises of better quality data are probably justified. CAPI already has a great deal to offer, particularly where the length or complexity of a questionnaire suggests that there is a possible risk to the quality of data.
  • Sheen, Kim Bartel / Hoy, Mariea Grubbs (University of Oregon, USA)
    Using E-mail to Survey Internet Users in the United States: Methodology and Assessment
  • Student Researchers
    Customizable and reliable online solutions for researcher data collection using online questionnaires or surveys.
  • Survey Design
    An outline of the survey design process: establishing goals, determining the sample and its size, selecting interview methodology, creating the questionnaire, carrying out the survey, analyzing the data. Provided by: Creative Research Systems
  • Survey Instruments in IS
    Provides researchers with actual instruments used in Information Systems. Although developed for Information Systems, the site contains useful information for researchers in the social sciences. Editors: Peter Newsted, Sid Huff, Malcolm Munro & Andrew Schwarz.
  • Thomas, Roger / Purdon, Susan
    Telephone methods for social surveys
    In: Social Research Update, 8.
    The main attraction of telephone interviewing is that it enables data to be collected from geographically scattered samples more cheaply and quickly than by field interviewing, but avoids the well-known limitations of postal surveys. The problems are to do with obtaining adequately representative samples of the general population and adequate response rates when persons or households are approached "cold" by telephone. Doubts have also been raised about the quality of the data, compared with face-to-face interviewing. The authors show that initial doubts about the reliability of factual information obtained over the telephone and its comparability with information obtained face-to-face have largely been discounted. Telephone interviewing, however, has not yet become a substitute for face-to-face interviewing across the board.
  • Using Structured Interviewing Techniques
    A detailed discussion of problems related tot structured inverviewing techniques. Presented by the US Government Accounting Office (GAO), 1991.
  • Virtual Surveys
    A research agency specialized on website and internet research. The site offers some papers with useful information on conducting surveys.
  • Watt, James H. - University of Connecticut, USA
    Using the Internet for Quantitative Survey Research
    Explanation of some powerful reasons (speed, cost, ease of modification, attractiveness) why you should consider using the internet for quantitative survey research. Learn how to select appropriate populations and the pros and cons of different methods of conducting internet surveys.
  • WebSM - Web Survey Methodology
    Articles on web survey methodology, organized by alphabet, chronology and subject.
  • What is a Survey? - American Statistical Association (ASA). 
    It discusses current practice and the innovations now in process for the main types of surveys -- mail, telephone interview, and in-person interview. Each form has distinct advantages and disadvantages. Each is also greatly being changed by the use of computers and telecommunications.

Statistics: Statistical Software

  • Annotated Bibliography of Articles for the Statistics User 
    The articles are organized into 5 topics: analysis of variance (multiple comparison methodes, analysis of covariance, ANOVA/MANOVA etc.), other linear models (multiple regression, discriminant & canonical correlation analysis, causal modelling), meta-analysis, miscellaneous, and other statistics bibliographies. Compiled by Loren McMaster, Statistical Consulting Service, York University, Canada.
  • Center for Statistics and the Social Sciences (CSSS) - University of Washington, Seattle. 
    The goal of the CSSS is to galvanize research and education on statistical methods for the social sciences. It aims to bring together a group of outstanding faculty members combining expertise in cutting-edge statistical methods and in social science methodology. It provides an outstanding collaborative opportunity for social scientists across campus. And it offers offer a series of courses targeted at social science graduate students that are designed to raise the level of understanding and competence in statistics and quantitative social science methodology.
  • Chance Database 
    Introductory probability statistics course developed cooperatively by Middlebury, Grinnell, Spelman, University of California San Diego, University of Minnesota and Dartmouth. The aim of CHANCE is to make students more informed, and critical, readers of current news that uses probability and statistics as reported in daily newspapers and current journals and magazines. The site includes links to Chance Magazine, a magazine of the American Statistical Association about statistics and its use in society, and articles and materials relating to specific topics including Polls and Survesy, Probability, Lottery, Smoking, etc.
  • Data and Story Library (DASL) - Carnegie Mellon University, USA. 
    A repository of stories and datafiles which illustrate various concepts in statistics and data analysis. Stories are organized both by content area and by methodology employed.
  • David Howell's Statistical Page 
    This page is intended to go with two statistical texts: Statistical Methods for Psychology and Fundamental Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. It contains data files, examples, etc. mostly designed for use with these texts, but it will be useful to others not using those books.
  • Easton, Valerie J. / McColl, John H. -University of Lancaster, UK
    Statistics Glossary
    Useful for looking up short definities. You can browse for many statistical terms, but the information provided is sometimes rahter schematic.
  • ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation 
    Provides balanced information concerning educational assessment and resources to encourage responsible test use.
  • Wikipedia: Multivariate Statistics
  • Garson, G. David
    Statnotes: An online Textbook
    In the main section you will find articles on statistical functions: Anova, Ancova, correlation, discriminant function, factor & path analysis, logistic regression, and so on. The articles in the Additional Topics section are far shorter, and cover topics in research methods (e.g., focus group research, narrative analysis, probability, reliability, sampling) as well as statistical tests and techniques (e.g., significance testing, cluster analysis, multilevel modeling).
  • Globally Accessible Statistical Procedures (GASP) 
    Online statistical procedures, which you can access from your web browser. These are actual routines that take data (entered via a form) and return statistical results. Users need only choose the routine and then enter the data into a form - results will be returned to the user's browser window. Includes some CGI routines and some Java routines (regression applet, confidence interval applet, survival analysis applet etc.).
  • Guide to Statistical Computing Resources on the internet 
    Providing SAS and SPSS resources, and more. Editors: Ken Varnum & John Weise (Univ. of Michigan, USA).
  • Helberg, Clay (Univ. of Wisconson, USA)
    Pitfalls of Data Analysis (or How to Avoid Lies and Damned Lies)
    A discussion of things that people often overlook in their dat analysis, and ways people sometimes "bend the rules" of statistics to support their viewpoint.
  • Hopkins, Will G. (University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    A New View of Statistics
    A useful introductory text with an emphasis on cenceptual understanding of the underlying logic of statistical analysis and tests. It has been written for researchers and students in the sport and exercise sciences, but social scientists will not be disappointed.
  • Hutchinson, Paul (Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Australia)
    How to Study Statistics
    Aimed particularly at those who are taking their first course in statistics.
  • Lane, David M. (Rice University, Houston, USA)
    HyperStat Online 
    A clearly written and well organized and presented online statistics textbook. It discusses univariate and bivariate data, probability, normal and sampling distributions, testing hypotheses, prediction, and chi-square, and more. The site includes links to other introductory texts.
  • International Association for Survey Statisticians (IASS)
    IASS promotes the study and development of the theory and practice of sample surveys and censuses. It also aims to increase the interest in surveys and censuses among statisticians, governments and the public in the different countries of the world.
  • International Statistical Institute 
    One of the oldest international scientific associations (established in 1885) seeks to develop and improve statistical methods and their application through the promotion of international activity and co-operation. It is composed of more than 1900 elected members who are the world's leading statisticians. The Permanent Office of the ISI is situated in Voorburg (near The Hague), in the Netherlands.
  • Journals on statistics:
  • Joyce, David E. - Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Clark University, USA. 
    Julia and Mandelbrot Set Explorer
  • Leeuw, Jan de (University of California, Los Angeles, USA)
    Statistics - The Study of Stability in Variation 
    An introduction in the analysis of (single, pair and multi) variables.
  • Lowry, Richard - Psychology Department, Vassar College, USA
    • VassarStats: Website for Statistical Computation 
      A great site that will help you to find a useful and user-friendly tool for performing statistical computation. It includes statistical procedures such as probabilities, distributions, frequency data, proportions, ordinal data, correlation & regression, t-test, ANOVA, and ANCOVA.
    • Concepts and Applications of Inferential Statistics
      A full-length webtext on inferential statistics. The text is clearly organized, well-written and has numerous examples. It includes introductory materials on the principles of measurement and distribution, correlation and regression, probability sampling distributions, tests of statistical significance, t-tests, non-parametric tests, ANOVA, variance analysis.
  • Math Teacher Link - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
    Resources for teachers who want to give their students an introduction to statisical concepts.
  • NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division (NAS)
    NAS Modeling and Visualization Through the Years 
    Timeline of the 30-year evolution in modeling and simulation, performed on supercomputers operated by the NAS Division at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley: from the first Cray system in 1983 to NASA’s flagship supercomputer, Pleiades, today. As systems and codes have improved, scientists and engineers have been able to produce increasingly accurate, detailed simulations for U.S. aerospace and science research projects ranging from the fluid dynamics within fuel injectors for aircraft, to massive computer models of Earth’s ocean and atmosphere.
  • Newsgroups on statistics
  • Probability Web 
    A site, maintained by Phil Pollett (Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. of Queensland, Australia) which wants to serve people with interests in probability theory and its applications. It provides probability links, abstracts; information on listservers, newsgroups, people, jobs, journals, software, books and conferences.
  • Prophet StatGuide Glossary 
    An illustrated glossary with substantive definitions. Prophet is a National Computing Resource for Life Science Research sponsored by the National Center for Research Resources of the National Institutes of Health.
  • Question Bank - Centre for Applied Social Surveys
    An onlinke bank of social surveys for survey professionals, social scientists and student/teachers of survey methods.
  • Raynald’s SPSS Tools
    A site dedicated to SPSS. It includes more than 350 sample syntax, macros and scripts as well as FAQs, Tips, Tutorials and a Newbie's Corner. Editor: Raynald Levesque.
  • Royal Statistical Society (RRS) - UK
    The Social Statistical Section arranges an annual programme of meetings on social statistics and organizes study groups for the examination of particular problems.
  • Stark, Philip B. - Department of Statistics, University of California, Berkeley, USA
    SticiGui is an acronym for «Statistics Tools for Internet and Classroom Instruction with a Graphical User Interface». It this introductory course users can examine their understanding of the text and conduct the tests being discussed. Don’t forget to consult the extensive glossary. An excellent resource for those who like to learn through interactive examples.
  • Statistical Links 
    A list of statistical links compiled by Marius Ooms (Amsterdam, Netherlands).
  • Statistics.com
    Information about statistics software (major packages like SAS, SPSS and S-PLUS, shareware and smaller packages too), as well as about statistics analysis, data analysis and short courses in statistics.
  • Statistics Glossary 
    It covers: basic definitions, presenting data, sampling, probability, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, paired data, correlation and regression, design of experiments and ANOVA, categorical data, non-parametric methods, time series data.
  • Statistics and Statistical Graphics 
    An extensive topic-based collection of resources for statistics, statistical graphics, and computation related to research, data analysis and techching. Among the many categories that are included are general statistical resources, resources related to particular statistical packages, data visualization and statistical graphics. And don't forget to inspect the online courses. Editor: Michael Friendly (Psychology Department, York University, Canada).
  • Statistics on the Web 
    A list of statistical links, compiled by Clay Helberg.
  • Statistics to Use 
    Informative pages and online statistical calculators, covering topics such as descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact test, ANOVA, chi-square, and OLS regression.
  • Statistik 
    A collection of statistical resources, including news, software, data, documentation and scientific literature. Editor: Haiko Lüpsen (Köln, Germany).
  • StatLib 
    A system for distributing statistical software, data sets, and statistical information. Editor: Mike Meyer (Carnegie Mellon University, USA).
  • StatSoft: Electronic Statistics Textbook 
    A text book on the use of statistics in laboratory research, business and forecasting, social science, datamining, engineering, and quality control, provided by StatSoft Inc. The modules deal with topics such as ANOVA/MANOVA, cluster and correspondence analysis, data mining techniques, experimental design, factor and process analysis, graphical techniques, linear regression, log-linear analysis, multidimensional scaling, and reliability analysis. It includes a detailed glossary and extensive bibliography. The book can also be downloaded as one large .zip file for local use.
  • Stockburger, David W. - Southwest Missouri State University, USA
    • [2001] Multivariate Statistics: Concepts, Models, and Applications
      Multivariate concepts are illustrated with interactive graphics. Each chapter contains some small assignments designed to illustrate a single concept.
    • [2010] Sampling Distribution
      An article for the World Statistical Encyclopedia that explains the theoretical distribution of a sample statistics. The sampling distribution allows the statistician to hypothesize about what the world would look like if a statistic was calculated an infinite number of times.
    • [2013] Introductory Statistics: Concepts, Models, and Applications 
      An online text book that explains the development of the concept of creating mathematical models of the world. It contains an extensive treatment of measurement and measurement scales as a model-building procedure.
    • [2014] Probability Calculators
      A Java Applet that finds probabilities and values for the Normal, t, F, and Chi Swquare distributions, and illustrates them with figures. The programm eliminates the need for tables and provides exact significance levels.
  • SurfStat australia 
    An online Stat 101 statistics book with additional internet sites listed. Created by Keith Dear (University of Newcastle, Australia).
  • Swincow, T.D.V. / Campbell [1997/2002] - Tenth edition
    Statistics at Square
    Online version of one of the most widely used statistical textbooks in the UK. The text is well written, the examples employed clarify well the use of various statistics, there are plenty of tables and graphics. There is an emphasis on discussing what types of tests are most appropriate for particular situations. Content coverage is of standard introductory textbooks, including descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, chi-squared, exact probability, rank score, and correlations tests. There is also a chapter on study design and choosing a statistical test.
  • Thompson, Bruce (Texas A&M; and Baylor College of Medicine, USA)
    The Concept of Statistical Significance Testing
  • UN Statistical Division
    Monthly Bulletin of Statistics. Registration required.
  • Virtual Institute for Research in Official Statistics (VIROS) 
    Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Communities) tries to co-ordinate research activities in official statistics and dissemination of their results. The innovative concept of VIROS is to develop a decentralized system in which every participating organization remain entirely responsible for its contribution, and Eurostat acts as a central coordinator ensuring that the individual elements appear integrated into a coherent, richer set. The additional benefit is that this makes information on Research in Official Statistics more widely accessible and easier to find.
  • Virtual Library - Statistical Page 
    Resources from the University of California. Provides a list of documents from statistical departments of universities world wide, statistical research groups, institutes and associations and more. Maintained by Mike Conlon.
  • Wikipedia: Multivariate Statistics



  • Demographic Software
  • Ergul, Hakan [2007] - Anadulu University, Turkey
    Ethnographic Data Analysis Software
  • Science Plus - Scientific Software Catalogue 
    It contains comprehensive information on computer applications for the social and behavioral sciences developed in the United States and Europe. Its purpose is to prevent the duplication of programming efforts by providing scientists with a library of existing (special purpose) software. Each entry includes a functional description; technical and data requirements; prices; availability of manual and interface; literature references; and purchase addresses. The database contains a wide range of software for qualitative and quantitative analysis, psychological assessment and text/data management.
  • Summary of Survey Analysis Software - American Statistical Association (ASA). 
    A summary of available software for the analysis of surveys with complex sample designs. It does not attempt coverage of the many excellent packages which do not have the particular features required to analyse such data. Information can be viewed by package or comparatively by topic.

    Qualitative Data Analysis Software

  • Caqdas - Networking Project 
    Qualitative Data Analysis Software. A project is funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council and has no commercial links to any software developer or supplier. It aims to disseminate an understanding of the practical skills needed to use software which has been designed to assist qualitative data analysis (e.g field research, ethnography, text analysis). The project also provides a variety of media where the debate surrounding associated methodological and epistemological issues, can take place. The site provides demo versions of various qualitative analysis packages, a bibliography, short courses, software training courses, advisory help-line, and a newsletter.
  • HyperRESEARCH (ResearchWare, Inc.)
    A multimedia coding, content analysing, theory building, hypothesis testing tool for qualitative analysis. HyperRESEARCH lets you: code any amount of data any number of times; retrieve and manipulate portions of coded source material; test propositions about the data on any code or combination of codes using Boolean searches; test hypotheses about the overall meaning of your data using artificial intelligence; print or export the retrieved data to a word processor, spreadsheet or statistical package. A commercial software package for Macintosh or Windows, presented by: ResearchWare.
  • Inspiration 
    Visual thinking and learning software for K-12 education. Visual learning techniques — graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information — teach students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize new information.
    A support program for the analysis of qualitative data. English and Dutch version.
  • Solari 
    Commercial software designed to aid researchers in handling non-numerical, unstructured data by supporting processes of indexing, searching and theorizing. It supports the traditional processes of qualitative data analysis whether or not the data are on computer, and is available in versions for Windows or Apple Macintosh (TM) computers.
  • winMAX 
    A German software system for the analysis of qualitative data, for example narrative interviews, expert interviews, group interviews, all kinds of unstructured interviews, case histories, field notes, observation protocols, documents, letters and other written material. Only for Windows. English and German versions.

    Statistical Software

  • Analyse-it
    Wide range of statistics, including ANOVA, regression, non-parametrics, and much more. Download a free 30-day trial.
  • Data Description, Inc. 
    A data analysis tool: data visualization, data mining and statistical analysis. Created by Paul Velleman.
  • Epi Info 
    Excellent suite of software tools from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, and its free, and so is the documentation. Epi Info is a word-processing, database and statistics program for public health. Its integrated features allow you to deal with each part of an outbreak investigation or epidemiological study. Features include: handling epidemiological data in questionnaire format; calculating sample size requirements; analyzing data; visualization; presenting the results as a written report. You can read the Epi Info Manuals.
  • GraphPad
    A graphically oriented package for Windows. Try the demo's of GraphPad and GraphPrism.
  • Interactive Statistical Calculation Pages
    A listing of web pages that perform statistical calculations. Editor John C. Pezullo (Georgetown University). The first section contains links that assist in determining the most appropriate statistical test to employ for the purpose at hand. Other sections include links to calculatoer, plotters, function integrators and interactive programming envirionments, probability distribution functions (graphs, random number generators, etc.), descriptive statistics (histograms, charts, point pattern analysis), confidence intervals, sample comparisons (t-tests, ANOVAs, non-parametric comparisons), contingency tables, and more.
  • Java Applets 
    A collection of Java applets for statistics. Created by NWP Associates, Inc. Datasets up to 100 rows, 10 columns can be analyzed for free, anything larger requires a subscription. See also Statistics Applets.
  • JMP - Statistical Discovery Software 
    A desktop statistical discovery software from SAS. It links dynamic data visualization with powerful statistics, in memory and on the desktop.
  • Journal of Statistical Software 
    Articles, book reviews, code snippets, and software regiews on the subject of statistical software and algorithms. Editor-in-chief: Jan de Leeuw.
  • Kovach Computing Services (KCS)
    Information and customer support for statistical software from KCS (Kovach Computing Service). If you like Data Desk, SimStat, Wordstat, XLSTat, MVSP, Oriana, or Wa-Tor, this is the place.
  • MacStats
    Software reviews, general-purpose mathematical software, and software packages for Regression/ANNOVA, structural equation modeling etc. Editor: Joel West at UC Irvine (USA).
  • NCSS 
    Statistical software and data analysis software. Utah, USA.
  • NSDstat Pro
    A Norwegian statistical analysis package.
  • Thomas, Len / Krebs, Charles J. [1997] (Univ. of British Columbia, USA)
    A Review of Statistical Power Analysis Software
    There are many software packages available to help researchers perform statistical power analysis. These packages vary in the scope of their tests, their accuracy, ease of use, and ease of learning.
    In: Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 78(2):128-139
  • Provalis Research 
    Inexpensive, easy, yet powerful statistical solutions for research and teaching. They present: SimStat (a free beta Windows version is available) and MVSP (MultiVariate Statistical Program), WordStat (content analysis module), StatItem (classical item analysis module).
  • Research Randomizer
    Online programme that employs JavaScript in order to produce customized sets of random numbers. A tutorial explains in 5 lessons how the program can be used in different research contexts requiring randomness. It demonstrates how random sampling can be used to solve practical statistical problems.
  • Rice Virtual Lab in Statistics (RVLS)
    The RVLS offers an online statistics book with links to other statistics resources, java applets that demonstrate various statistical concepts, examples of real data with analysis and interpretation, and some tools for basic statistical analysis. In the section of simulations and demonstrations users can input their own data, and then display various descriptive statistics relating to the data or conduct some statistical tests. Editor: David M. Lane (Dept. of Psychology and Statistics, Rice University, USA).
  • Sample Size Calculator
    A calculator that enables you to determine the size of sample that you need for a combination of a specified total population, confidence interval and condifence level. A separate calculator enables users to establish the confidence interval for a specified sample size, total population, and confidence level. It includes a clear explanation of the terms, and of the factors that affect confidence intervals. Presented by Creative Research Systems.
  • Software Tools - AT&T; 
    Mathematical and Statistical Software developed at ATY&T; Labs Research.
  • SPSS Inc.'s Home Page
    The firm that helps us turn data into insight through predictive analytics. The site offers supplementary information for SPSS users.
  • Statibot
    An expert system that helps users solve statistical problems. The programme guides you through your data step by step until you find the proper test method. It consists of a decision network with 450 nodes: you provide the answer to a question relating to your problem, and are then presented with alternative lines of action which meet specific requirements, working down the nodal tree until you arrive at the solution. This particular decision network is more complex than the traditional hierarchical structures, having loops, back jumps and cross connections. Statibot has been developed by Dominik Heeb.
  • Statistics Solutions Pro
    A software application simplifies the data analysis process down to four easy steps, allowing you to run your analysis and download your results in an editable, APA formatted Word document. The analyses you can select are: 1-within-1-between ANOVA; 2-between ANOVA; ANCOVA; Chi-square; Dependent samples t-test; Independent samples t-test; Kruskal-Wallis; (Multiple) linear regression; Logistic regression; Mann whitney U; Mediation; Moderation; One way ANOVA; Pearson correlation; Repeated measures ANOVA; Spearman rho correlation; Wilcoxon signed rank.
  • xlstat 
    An Excel add-in for statistics and data analysis.

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