Leisure - Recreation - Sport


Leisure sociology is the study of how individuals handle their leisure time. Recreation covers a wide variety of events, such as sport, travel,,..

Recreation and Leisure Studies


Americans' Use of Time Project 
A longitudinal study from 1965 to the present that examines the changing nature of use of time, including leisure activities. Located at the University of Maryland, USA. See also ICPSR Data.


Bibliography of Leisure Constraints Research 
This unique bibliography, compiled by Ed Jackson (University of Alberta, Canada), focuses on constraints in using leisure facilities/resources. Last updated: 1996.


  • Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute (associated with Active Living in Canada
    A national research agency concerned with advising, educating, and informing Canadians and professionals about the importance of leading healthy, active lifestyles. Sites includes survey results, calls for research proposals and online sources for communicating results.
  • Cyberwonders Travel 
    A resource for academics and professional on tourism and recreation, and a guide for the traveller/tourist. The resources are organized by continent and coutries. Editor: Renee Dopplick (George Washington Univ., USA).


A Dutch network organized around fundamental research on time-space dynamics in recreation and tourism.


  • Harris, Dave (University College of St Mark and St John, U.K.)
    Online articles written by Dave Harris and other scholars.
  • History of Tents
    Manuscripts and other items depicting tents from the 1st century to the 18th century. Editor: Sthephen Fancis Wyley.


Institute for Integrative Tourism and Leisure Research (IITF) 
A non-university institution for research and education in the area of sutainability in tourism and regional development. Based in Zürich, Switzerland. German and English version.


  • Lebensfürung im Wandel
    A network of scientists devoted to the sociological research on the conduct of everyday life.
  • Leisure Information Network 
    A government site at Ontario, Canada which serves leisure professionals. Includes a recreation database, bulletin board, career center, news and events related to leisure. English and French version.
  • Leisure Research Symposium
    Presentations from the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA) annual national Congress. Maintained by Daniel D. McLean, Indiane University Department of Recreation and Park Administration, U.S.A.
  • Leisure Studies Webpage
    A site created on behalf of the Australian and New Zealand Association for Leisure Studies (ANZALS) and maintained by the School of Leisure Studies, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia. Coordinator: Denis Coleman.


Morgan, K.B.
Getting Lost: 'Isolation is the Answer'
A thoughtful article on the need and desire for isolation and its psychological, physical and social benefits. Links isolation needs to existence and maintenance of wilderness areas. Bibliography provided. Maintained by Hiking in Colorado.


National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA)
An American association that supports parks, recreation and environmental conservation efforts that enhance the quality of life for all people.


Outdoor Recreation Research 
Online information on wilderness and natural areas recreation, nature tourism, psychological and sociological aspects of outdoor recreation, ecological effects of outdoor recreation, and visitor education. The page also contains links to other resources associated with recreation and the outdoors. Editor: Yu-Fai Leung (Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management).



Travel Guides

Academic Departments

Professional Sport Associations

  • Canadian Association for Leisure Studies (CALS) 
    A a relatively informal organization of Canadian and international scholars and practitioners who share an interest in recreation and leisure research and the delivery of leisure services. Provides information on CALS, and links to similar national and international organizations and programs in recreation and leisure studies.
  • European Association for Sport Management (EASM)
    An independent association of individuals involved or interested in the management of sport in the broadest sense. The EASM promotes and stimulates studies, research, scholarly writing and professional development in the field of sport management. It also publishes the European Journal of Sport Management.
  • National Consortium on Recreation and Youth Development 
    A coalition of universities and the parks and recreation departments of local communities in the U.S. Jointly sponsored research focuses on the impact of recreation programs on at-risk youth. The site contains research reports.
  • World Leisure and Recreation Association (WRLA) 
    A worldwide non-governmental organization with United Nations consultative status that is dedicated to discovering and fostering conditions for the pursuit of leisure and free time experiences which most fully enhance the lives of persons and their communities. The WRLA explores and discovers the nature and consequences of leisure experiences for individuals, groups and commununities.

Leisure Journals

Leisure References: Directories and Guides

Sociology of Sport

  • Africa Online 
    A division of Prodigy Inc., this site has an extensive listing of sports organizations, scores, online links to various African nations' sports programs, chat rooms and resources for those interested in sports on the African continent.
  • Cagan, Joanna / DeMaus, Neil 
    Field of Schemes
    An analysis of the political economy of sports stadiums with links to related information about sports and corporate welfare. It discusses the public financing of sports facilities and the rationale —or lack thereof— behind this common scenario. The site accompanies the book of the same name.
  • Directory of Experts in Sport Sociology
    Contains names and locations of social scientists in a wide range of sport areas who can help journalists and others interested in understanding issues related to sport and society. Editor: Michael Messner (Univ. of Southern California, USA).
  • Football Research Organisation UK
    A site dedicated to the academic study of football violence (hooliganism) and policing. A research tool for all students and academics interested in football related issues also including, media, racism, feminism studies, world cup etc. Excellent resources such as, references, theorists and theories, glossaries, internal search engine and translation facility. Editor: Robin Manser.
  • Gospelcom: Sports and Athletics Resources
    Connections between sports and Christianity are explored. Testimonials, forums and links to other sites sponsored by the Gospel Communications Network.
  • Hooliganism
    Research into football hooliganism and policing in the UK and Europe. Sociological aspects of football violence. Editor: Robin Manser.
  • Human Kinetics
    Information in physical activity. It includes a great sport section. A collection of links on human kinetis, inforkinetics, physical activity.
  • Ice Sports Page
    Site for luge, bobsled, speed skating and other sports on ice. Personal and organizational web sites provided.
  • Jewish Sports
    A publication of "Herwish Family Life" (JFL), a producer of original Jewish content. The site provides news and profiles of Jewish athletes, owners and related sports figures in sport. It includes a Jewish orientated link list.
  • Polling Report
    An independent organization which reports on surveys of public opinion in the U.S., has poll results on several issues related to sports.
  • Referee/Umpire Homepage
    Various resources related to umpiring/officiating in sport. Has chat rooms, usegroup, links, professional associations and sport-specific discussion boards.
  • Sociology of Sport - in French
    By: Dominique Jorand.
  • Sports Background Reports
    Public Service Broadcasting (PBS), the U.S. national public radio station's site has archives of interviews with well-known commentators on a variety of sport-related topics.
  • Young, T.R.
    Teaching Sociology of Sport

Women and Sport

  • Canadian Association for the Advancement of Women and Sport and Physical Activity (CAAWS)
    Encourages girls and women to get out of the bleachers, off the sidelines, and onto the fields and rinks, into the pools, locker rooms and board rooms of Canada.
  • Empowering Women in Sports
    Presented by the Feminist Majority Foundation. This article documents the inequity and sex discrimination prevalent in the field of sport in the USA. Topics include barriers to women in athletic careers, women in the Olympics, women athletes in the media, contact sports and violence against women and strategies for change.
  • Gender Equity in Sports
    Research project at the University of Iowa, USA. The site contains documents relating to the legislation, and links to sites aimed at people who are investigating "the state of affairs in interscholastic or intercollegiate sport". Project leaders: Mary C. Curtis and Christine H.B. Grant.
  • International Working Group Web Site
    In preparation for the 2002 World Conference on Women and Sport, May 16-19, 2002, Canada.
  • SportsForWomen.com
    A place where active women and fans of women's sports click for information and inspiration. Forums, chat rooms, news and links for women and sport with focus on U.S. sport scene.
  • Womensport Australia
    A platform for women's sport and recreation groups to communicate and share their common problems and solutions.
  • WomenSport International (WSI)
    An international organization devoted to enhancing female sport and physical activity at all levels of involvement. Site has issues-related task forces, Web links and professional contacts. Maintained by Ann Hall.

    Women's Sports Foundation (WSF)
    One of the oldest and largest U.S.A.-based nonprofit organizations dedicated to increasing opportunities for girls and women in sports and fitness. Established in 1974 by Billie Jean King along with other female athletes, the WSF uses education, advocacy, public recognition and grants to support sport and fitness for females. Site has search engine, research reports, information on grants and links to athletic resources. Sponsored by Lifetime Entertainment Services.

  • Women's Sports (WWWomen)
  • WWW Women's Sports Page
    Organized by sport from Archery to Wrestling, this site has extensive listings, biographies, associations and links to women's organized, competitive sports. Created and maintained by Amy Lewis since 1995.

Olympic Games

  • International Olympic Committee (IOC)
    Includes a virtual museum.
  • Olympic Games
    Information on all past and future summer and winter games.
  • Special Olympics International
    Official site. Devoted to information and resources about sport for those with mental retardation.
  • Olympics Online: The Old Media Beat the New Media
    The Olympics of 2000 was one of the most popular Internet events in history. The official Games Web site received 8.7 million unique visitors from around the worlds (and 11.3 million hits). Although these Olympics has been called the first "Internet Olympics", the Web only played a supplementary role in the Olympic experience for a fraction of Americans.

Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Sports

  • Federation of Gay Games
  • Gay Games Amsterdam 1998
    Official site for the Games, in both Dutch and English.
  • GaySport.info
    Information on activities, organizations, and events in gay and lesbian sports. The site is a non-profit venture of the European Gay & Lesbian Sport Federation (EGLSF) and the Dutch GISAG foundation.
  • Gay Sports Mate
    Presented by a network of non-commercial gay and lesbian lokal sites in Germany.
  • Gender Equity in Sports
    A project of the University of Iowa, USA.
  • Hekma, Ger [1998]
    Gay Men and Lesbians in Organized Sports in the Netherlands
    In: Journal of Homosexuality, 35(1), 1998. At the request of the Dutch government, a group of researchers looked into the experiences of gay men and lesbians in organized, non-professional sports. The principal finding was that gay men and lesbians do not experience much discrimination. This circumstance results from the invisibility and silencing of homosexuality in athletics, both by sports organizations and by gay men and lesbians themselves. But in those sports where lesbians have become open about their sexuality, especially in soccer, they do encounter a high level of discrimination. Gay men, on the other hand, have not become visible in any sport. Several suggestions are offered on how to open up sports for lesbians and gay men.
  • International Gya & Lesbian Gymnastics Union (IGLGU)
    The IGLGU organizes competitions for ultimate inclusion of gymnasts in the Gay Games. It strives to provide a safe environment for gay, lesbian & bisexual gymnasts throughout the world.
  • Outsports
    A site that proves that the idea that 'gay' and 'sports' are a contradiction is wrong. An intelligent look at the world of sports with a slightly bent perspective. The ambition of Outsports is to build a broad, deep, most informative and entertaining gay sports community. It was founded by Jim Buzinsky and Cyd Zeigler, Jr. from Los Angeles, USA.
  • Sports: Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual - Google/DMOZ
  • Sports: Lesbians, Ga and Bisexuals - Yahoo!

Sport for Disabled

  • British Deaf Sports Council (BDSC)
    Offers information on results and reports on several sports. Includes a mailing list, a history of the organisation, an events calendar, regional contact information and a links page.
  • Cerebral Palsy International Sport and Recreation Association (CP-ISRA)
    CPISRA is committed to enhancing the opportunities for people with cerebral palsy or a related neurological condition to participate in the sport or leisure activity of their choosing.
  • English Federation of Disability Sport
    The national body responsible for developing sport for disabled people in England. They work closely with several other national disability sports organisations whose websites are described separately in Intute. This website contains a news section, events calendar, links to other organisations, details of national job vacancies, teaching publications, sports development projects and other useful items such as electric wheelchair soccer rules.
  • European Women and Sport (EWS)
    EWS aims to increase the involvement of women in sport at all levels, encouraging equal opportunities in education, training, participation, promotion, decision making and administration. The site offers information about the organisation and a list of contact persons throughout Europe. There are details of events, conferences and seminars, and projects.
  • International Blind Sport Association (IBSA)
    The goal of the IBSA is the full integration of the blind and visually impaired through sport at all levels. Offers information on results and reports on several sports.
  • International Committee of Sports for the Deaf
  • International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
    IPC is the international organization of elite sports for athletes with disabilities. IPC organizes the Paralympic Games and other multi-disability competitions on elite sports level.
National Paralympic Committees
Austria Österreichischer Behindertensportverband
Australia Australian Paralympic Committee
Canada Canadian Paralympic Committee
Denmark Dansk Handicap Idręts-Forbund
Finland Suomen Invalidien Urheiluliitto
Germany Deutscher Behindertensportverband e.V.
Great Britain British Paralympic Association
Hong Kong Hong Kong Sports Association for the Physically Disabled
Italy Federazione Italiana Sport Disabili
Japan Japan Sports Association for the Disabled
Kuwait Kuwait Disabled Sport Club
Netherlands Nederlandse bond voor aangepast sporten
New Zealand Paralympics New Zealand
Norway Norges Funksjonshemmedes Idrettsforbund (NFIF)
Singapore Singapore Sports Council for the Disabled
Spain Federación Española de Deportes de Minusválidos Físicos (FEDMF)
South Africa National Paralympic Committee of South Africa
Sweden Svenska Handikappidrottsförbundet
Switzerland Schweizerischer Gehörlosen Sportverband
Swiss Deaf Sport Association
USA United States Paralympic Committee



Academic Departments

Sport Associations, Societies and Networks

Sport Journals

Reference: Directories and Guides

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