Language Resources | Sociology of Language


Sociology of language looks for to get it the way that social flow are influenced by person and gather language utilize. Since its birth, the Internet has been dominated by the English language and North-American culture.

In a world of five to eight thousand different ethnic groups who reside in approximately 160 nations states speaking 5,000 distinct languages, some language must be the common language of the Internet.

Cyber-English all the Way?



There are thousands of languages across the world, but a smile speaks them all.

Out of the 7,106 recorded living languages, only 394 or 6% of living languages are used by 94% of the world’s population while the remaining 94% of languages are used only by an average of 1 million people or less [Ethnologue]. In terms of language footprint by content, Internet World Stats estimates that there are approximately 165 languages with web presence today and only 36 of them are actively used. Wikipedia currently hosts 288 languages and Google Translate supports already 90 languages at various levels. Today, 56% of web content is in English, and together with the other top 10 mainstream languages on the internet, account for 80% of online content. 

  • Auh, Taik-Sup (Korea University, Republic of Korea)
    Promoting Multilingualism on the Internet: Korean Experience
    Since its birth, the Internet has been dominated by the English language and North-American culture. In a world of five to eight thousand different ethnic groups who reside in approximately 160 nations states speaking 5,000 distinct languages, some language must be the common language of the Internet. Many people believe that English must be default the standard language on the Internet. There are clear indications of English becoming a lingua franca in the cyberspace. The autor summarizes the advantages of multicultural and multilingual Internet. He argues that multilingualism on the internet is a necessary, if not the sufficient, condition for transforming an ephemeral (= unstable and transitory) cybersociety into a robust one.


Benamar, Nabil [2012]
Towards a multilingual internet
In: The Internet Society, 9.11.2012


Chomprang, Duangthip [2014]
Multilingualism and the End of the Global Internet?
In: The Internet Society, 3.12.2014


  • Danet, Brenda / Herring, Susan C. (eds.) [2007]
    The Multilingual Internet - Language, Culture, and Communication Online
    Oxford University Press.
    The internet has become a truly global communication network. Many scholars have expressed concern about the dominance of world Onglish, and the internet as a new arena for its spread. Some view the spread of English as a natural or benign extension of globalization. Others take a dimmer view, writing of «linguistic imperialism» and its threat to the status of smaller languages. This book is devoted to the research to other languages on the internet.
  • Denglish - Verein Deutsche Sprache (VDS)
    The German language is flooded with a plethora of unnecessary and unsightly English expressions for years. This anglicisation the German language is related to the global spread of the American way of life. Behind this stands the political and economic power of the United States that has transformed the ways of life of many countries and their languages. The Association of the German Language don’t want a «pure» German language, but they also want to reduce the penetration of english words into the German language. “We want to resist the anglicisation the German language and remind the people of Germany to the value and the beauty of their native language. We want to preserve and develop our language. The ability to invent new words to describe new things must not be lost.”


Flynn, Mary Kathleen [2000]
Nations fear English language dominance on Net
The march of American culture across the planet has been done with Mickey Mouse, McDonald's Hamburgers, and the internet. And many governments fear this American imperialism. CNN correspondent Flynn describes some of the attempts to protect the national language and culture from being swamped by English words and American influences.


Horvath, John [1997]
Die Lingua Franca des Netzes
German essay on the fate of English as a world language. The globalizing effect of communication systems has created new sensibility for existing language barriers. Many people think that these problems can only be solved by creating a lingua franca. And many people believe that English is already a lingua franca. Can English really be a lingua franca, or is multi-linguality the next stage on the Internet?


  • Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication (JCMC) 
    The Multilingual Internet - Language, Culture and Communication in Instant Messaging, E-mail and Chat
    In: JCMC, 8(1), 2003.
  • John, Nicholas A. [2013]
    The Construction of the Multilingual Internet: Unicode, Hebrew, and Globalization
    An examination of the technologies that enable the representation of Hebrew on websites. Hebrew is written from right to left and in non-Latin characters, issues shared by a number of languages which seem to be converging on a shared solution—Unicode. It shows how competing solutions have given way to one dominant technology. Processes in the Israeli context are linked with broader questions about the ‘multilingual Internet’, asking whether the commonly accepted solution for representing non-Latin texts on computer screens is an instance of cultural imperialism and convergence around a western artifact. It is argued that while minority languages are given an online voice by Unicode, the context is still one of Western power.
    In: Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 18(3): 321–338, April 2013


  • Lebert, Marie [1999]
    Multilingualism on the Web | Idem - Gutenberg
    The internet transcends limitations of time, distances and borders. But the main language of the internet has been English. Although the use of other languages is steadily increasing, and there's still an English hegemony today. Lebert expecs that the distribution of languages on the internet will correspondend to the language distribution on the planet, and free translation software in all languages will be available for instantaneous translation of any website. She analyses what has to be done before multilingualism can be really effective.
  • Linguistic Society of America (LSA)
  • Lischka, Konrad [2001]
    Barbies Fleisch: English ist keine Weltsprache - es gibt viele englische Sprachen
  • Lockard, Joe [1996]
    Resisting Cyber-English
    In: Bad Subjects, Issue # 24, February 1996. 
    An essay that is not "Anti-English, but tries to argue "that English must be practiced as an open field rather than a linguistic prisonhouse where involuntary anglophones do hard time behind the steel bars of alien grammar." But he also argues "that in practice English is not home for increasing millions of cyber-citizens or cyber-wannabes who cannot access the nets easily or at all because their languages are not the net's primary operating language."


  • Maceviciute, Elena [2005]
    Multilingual Virtual World: Languages on the Internet
  • Multilingual Information Society programme (MLIS)
    Directorate-General XIII - Telecommunications, Information Market and Research. MLIS sets out to support the construction of an infrastructure for European language resources; to mobilise and expand the language industries; to promote the use of advanced language tools in the European public sector. Companies, public sector organisations, the language industries and citizens can benefit from this programme.
  • Multilingual Internet Group
    A group or organizations and companies that predicts that 2013 will see the birth of the multilingual internet.


  • Nellen, Ted
    Cyber English: Practical Theory
  • Nunberg, Geoffrey [2000]
    Will the Internet always Speak English?
    In: American Prospects, 11(10), March-April 2000.
    The Web is dominated by English. In 1999 about 85% of the text on Web pages was in English. Although the overall proportion of English has demished since then, there’s no question that the proportion of Englsh will remain disproportionately high for some time to come.Some view the prospect of an English-dominated Web with a certain alarm. The French President Jacques Chirac described the prevalence of English on the internet as a “major risk for humanity”, which threatens to imposte linguistic and cultural uniformity on the world. Nurnberg however argues that it is a mistake to assume that the linguistic effects of the internet can be measured in raw percantages of global language use. "What matters is not simply how widely a language is used, but why and when people use it and how it figures into their sense of social identity."


  • Taylor, Emily [2012]
    Speaking your language | UNESCO and EURid workshop on multilingual Internet, IGF Baku | The internet language roadblock
  • Treanor, Paul
    Language Futures Europe
    Treanor created a site on the language futures of Europe. It contains links on language policy, multilingualism, global language structures, and the dominance of English. It starts with a comment on the structures of language: then texts/essays, and sections on EU policy, national policies, and research sites. Finally there are links on the "monolingual movement" in the United States.on language policy, linguistic identity in Europe.
  • Tsuda, Yukio [2008] (Nagoya University, Japan)
    English Hegemony and English Divide
    The use of English is very much taken for granted in international communication today. Tsuda argues that it should be examined as a problem of linguistic hegemony. The dominance of English causes not only linguistic and communicative inequality, but also the feelings of anxiety and insecurity especially on the part of the non-English-speaking people. In this paper Tsuda categorizes the linguistic stuides of the global spread of English into three different positions: pro-hegemonic, functional/ideological and critical/transformative.


  • UNESCO [2016]
    Linguistic diversity and multilingualism on Internet
    Language is a primary vector for communicating information and knowledge. The opportunity to use one’s language on the internet determines the extent to which one can participate in emerging knowledge societies. Internet has brought about diverse opportunities for sharing information and knowledge in various languages. Anyone in principle can produce content, share it with the rest of the world and receive feedback. In principle, the internet is open to all languages of the world when certain technical conditions are met, and when the necessary human and financial resources are in place. However, many languages are not present on the internet. There is a vast linguistic divide, which exists in cyberspace today and this will only exacerbate the digital divide. Everyone therefore should have access to the multilingual internet.
  • Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights [includes versions in other languages]
    Barcelona, june 1996.
  • Uszkoreit, Hans [2013]
    Quality Translation: Addressing the Next Barrier to Multilingual Communication on the Internet - Videolecture
    As Europe has integration politically, languages are still one of the most pervasive barriers to interpersonal communication, cross-border commerce, and full participation in European democracy. Despite recent progress in machine translation, it is clear that the quality of today’s internet-based translation services is neither good enough for many tasks nor complete in terms of language coverage. Speakers of smaller languages thus find themselves largely excluded from vital discussions of European identity and policy. This talk argues in favor of a concerted push in Europe for quality translation technology and address concrete preparatory actions performed by the EC-funded QT LaunchPad Project. It discusses how these actions will directly influence the future of the Multilingual Web, both in Europe and around the world.



Machine Translation Tools

Machine translation is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of software to translate text or speech from one language to another.

  • Bing Translator
    A free multilingual statistical machine translation service that translates texts or entire web pages into different languages. Bing Translator offers translations in 51 languages.
  • Google Translate 
    A free multilingual statistical machine translation service that translates text, speech, images, or real-time video from one language into another. It also offers a mobile interfaces for Android and iOS. Google Translate supports 90 languages. The Statistical Machine Translation gathers loads of data over time to statistically offer you the best combination of translation in any given language pair.
    Try the translation of this page.
  • Yandex Translate
    A web service for translation of text or web pages into another language. It uses a self-learning statistical machine translation. Yandex can simultaneously translate in 63 languages. The translator is built into the Yandex.Browser and automatically offers to translate text from supported foreign languages. Also available as an app for your mobile phone.


  • Antonym Finder and Synonym Thesaurus
  • Book of Clichés, The
    Phrases to say in times of trouble, that you might want to repeat until believe. Editor: Sybe Visser (Netherlands).
  • Cambridge English Dictionary & Thesaurus
    Search the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary & Thesaurus, the Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary, and the Cambridge Business English Dictionary all at one time. It has references to over 170,000 words, phrases and examples explained. It is updated with new vocabulary that has come into English language (e.g. dirty bomb, lairy, 9/11, clickable).
  • Dictionary.com
    A general English-language dictionary. Its simple search form hides a sophisticated multi-source search of Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, WordNet, The Free Online Dictionary of Computing, Jargon File, The Elements, Easton’s 1897 Bible Dictionary, Hitchcock’s Bible Names Dictionary, U.S. Gazetteer, and The CIA World Factbook.
  • Dictionary of Critical Social Science, The
    A Teaching Dictionary of Key Words for Progressive, Radical, Critical, Marxist, Feminist, Left-Liberal as well as Postmodern Scholars and Students in Sociology, Philosophy, Economics, History, Social Psychology, Political Science and Anthropology as well as Religion and Theology. Editor: T.R. Young.
  • Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) 
    The revised fourth edition, supplied by the US Department of Labor (DOL).
  • Dictionary of PC Hardware and Data Communications Terms
    A comprehensive dictionary that provides complete descriptions of complex terms in two of the most volatile and interesting areas of computer development: personal computers and networks. It contains up-to-date information about everything from a common item like “batteries” to an obscure font technology called Speedo. Editor: Mitchell Shnier.
  • E.L. Easton: English onlice
    Materials for reading, writing, speaking, listening English, but also Albanian, Arabic, Chinese, Croatian, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Polish, Russian, and Spanish.
    Free On-line Dictionary of Computing. A searchable dictionary of acronyms, jargon, programming languages, tools, architecture, operating systems, networking, theory, conventions, standards, mathematics, telecomms, electronics, institutions, companies, projects, products, history, in fact anything to do with computing. Created by: Denis Howe. 
  • Free Dictionary, The
    This might well be the world’s most comprehensive dictionary: English, Spanish, German, French, Italian, Chinese, Portuguese, Dutch, Norwegian, Greek, Arabic, Polish, Turkish, Russian, Medical, Legal, and Financial Dictionaries, Thesaurus, Acronyms and Abbreviations, Idioms, Encyclopedia, a Literature Reference Library, and a Search Engine all in one!
  • Glossary of Internet Terms - by: Matisse Enzer
  • Glossary of Social Science Computer and Social Science Data Terms
    An on-line glossary of about 100 terms used in social science data archives. Edited by the University of San Diego-California.
  • Glossary of Social Science - Frank W. Elwell (Rogers STate University)
  • Glossary of Sociological Terms
    An attempt Introsocsite to inform us on the basic concepts of social sciences. From "absolute poverty" to "zero population growth" (and more than 250 concepts in between). Created by Caroline Hodges Persell.
  • HTML Tutorial - w3schools.com
  • Humanities And Social Science Electronic Thesaurus (HASSET)
    Excellent online thesaurus of terms used in the ESRC Data Archive at Essex University data catalog Biron. Also an excellent social science thesaurus apart from its ability to search Biron.
  • Inter-Active Terminology for Europe (IATE)
    The EU’s multilingual terminology database. IATE incorporates all of the existing terminology databases of the EU’s translation services into one interinstitutional database containing approximately 1.4 million multilingual entries.
  • Jargon File Resources 
    It indexes all the WWW resources associated with the Jargon File and its print version, The New Hacker's Dictionary. It's as official as anything associated with the Jargon File gets. You can browse or search this comprehensive compendium of hacker slang illuminating many aspects of hackish tradition, folklore, and humor. Editor: Eric S. Raymond et al.
  • Literary Vocabulary
    An alphabetical glossary of literary terms and their definitions.
  • Longman Dictionaries
    For English language students, teachers and reaserchers. You'll find word games, study exercises, lesson plans, information about Longman dictionaries and information for linguistic research.
  • Meyers Konversationslexikon - Das Wissen A-Z
    Offers more than 44.000 articles and 12.000 links. The database is searchable. It supports full boolean operators and syntax. Search terms may be truncated with an asterisk (e.g. hyper*).
  • Netlingo - an internet dictionary
  • New Hacker's Dictionary
    And here seems to be the original hackers dictionary (by Eric Raymond).
  • OneLook Dictionaries
    Searches in 66+ general and specialized English dictionaries simultaneously. You can pick specific dictionaries from a grouping of subject-specific dictionaries. From computer and science dictionaries to sports and religion dictionaries to general dictionaries. Editor: Robert K. Ware.
  • Online Dictionary of the Social Sciences - Athabasca University and ICAAP
    A fully searchable social science dictionary with entries covering the discipines of sociology, criminology, political science and women's study. Authors: Robert Drislane and Gary Parkinson.
  • Online Slang Dictionary - A Collobarative Project
  • Rap Dictionary
    The totally unofficial rap dictionary by: Patrick "Tricky" Atoon and Niels "Jax" Jansen. Rap slang dictionary, references to hip hop resources and much more. For people who don't come from the Ghetto but like to listen to Rap. Looks great and feels like 'nutt'. The database is searchable.
  • Search Engine Terms
    In English, French, Italian, Germa, Spanish, Dutch, and Serbian.
  • Skeptic’s Dictionary, The - Robert T. Carroll
    “Wherein may be found definitions and opinionated essays on matters occult, paranormal, supernatural and pseudoscientific with references to skeptical materials on subjects from acupuncture to zombis.”
  • Sociology Lexicon - ATS Group
  • Synonym
    A resource for English synonyms, antonyms, and definitions. Type in a word and the synonym finder will come up with a list of synonyms. Check out the most popular online synonym searches to find the right word for any occasion. Use the antonym tool to find find antonyms and check out the definitions feature to read the definition.
  • Synonym Dictionary of English
    A searchable dictionary of English synonyms and classes.
  • Webref: Social Sciences
    Glossaries of terms related to sociology, psychology, political sciences, archeology and anthropology.
  • Urban Dictionary
    A crowdsourced online dictionary of slang words and phrases in 32 languages. Anyone with a Facebook or Gmail account can make a submission to the dictionary, and all entries are reviewed and rated by volunteer editors and site visitors. Also available as Android App on Google Play
  • Webster
    • Merriam-Webster: Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia
    • Hypertext Webster Gateway 
      The Webster dictionary under your fingertips. Type the word for which you want the definition in the search window and hit return. Words in the resulting definition are hypertext linked back into the dictionary, allowing you to use your mouse to access the definition of those related (and unrelated) words. If you know the prefix of the word, a list of potential matches may be obtained by entering a * after the prefix, e.g., alpha*.
    • Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913 & 1828 Edition) - ARTFL Projekt 
  • WhatIs.com
    A cross-referenced glossary of Internet terms designed for fast lookup. Organized alphabetically and by topic.
  • Your Dictionary
    An easy to use on-line dictionary and thesaurus presented by the LoveToKnow Corporation. Indices


  • AllWords
    Offers search results from two English dictionaries: the AND Concise Dictionary from AND Data Ltd. and The Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary from The Random House Information Group. The results of a search appear separately, with the first 5 results from the AND dictionary followed by the first 5 results from the The Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary.
  • NASA Thesaurus, part 1 | part 2 (1998 Edition)
    The NASA Thesaurus contains the authorized subject terms by which the documents in the NASA STI Databases are indexed and retrieved. It comprises two volumes. The ‘Hierarchical Listing With Definitions’ contains all subject terms and USE cross references currently approved for use, and displays the full hierarchical structure for each term. Over 17,700 terms, 3,832 definitions, and approximately 4,000 USE references are contained in the Hierarchical Listing. The ‘Rotated Term Display’ is a ready reference tool which provides thousands of additional access points to the thesaurus terminology. It contains the postable terms and nonpostable terms found in the Hierarchical Listing arranged in a KWIC (key-word-in-context) index.
  • Roget’s Thesaurus 
    A catalog of English words and phrases that can be accessed by keyword searching or by browsing an outline which groups words by similarity of meaning. Originally published in 1852 by Dr. Peter Mark Roget under the title, Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases, Classified and Arranged so as to Facilitate the Expression of Ideas and Assist in Literary Composition. Provided by MICRA Inc. and the Gutenberg Project.

Acronym and Abbreviations

An acronym is a word formed from the initial letters of the words of a compound term.

  • Acronym and Abbreviation Server - University College Cork, Ireland 
    Here you can find out what acronyms like URL, HTML, GOPHER etc. mean. You can search for acronyms (and see its expansions), search for a word in the expansions (and see the related acronyms), or submit an acronym for inclusion in the database.
    A glossary of computer oriented abbreveviations and acronyms. Created by Irving & Richard Kind.
  • Canonical Abbreviation / Acronym List
    Compiled by James Marshall. If you don’t understand these kind of lines: “GOK why your GF is an EDP in F2F relations”. If I Tell You What It Means, Will You Buy Me A Drink? (IITYWIMWYBMAD).
  • Internet Begrippen
    A Dutch acronym list for the Internet. Editor: Albert Benschop, Amsterdam.
  • Wiley: Scientific and Technical Acronyms, Symbols and Abbreviations

Bilingual Dictionaries: Translations


  • Ethnologue - Languages of the World
    This massive catalogue, edited by Barbara F. Grimes and provided by the Summer Institute of Linguistics (Dallas, Texas, USA), contains links between more than 7,102 living languages and the 228 countries in which they are spoken. You can look up languages by country, or consult an alphabetic list of languages to see how many people speak them in each country. There's also a 'Language Family Index', which groups languages by shared structural and lexical innovations. Language information can also include number of speakers in the world, dialects, linguistic typology, and availability of the Bible. Country information includes the languages spoken, and can also include various demographic and geographic information. The site can be searched from the main countries page.

  • Free Translator
    A selection of the best free translators, dictionaries and language courses on the web.

  • Google Translate

  • I Love Languages
    A comprehensive catalog of language-related internet resources: dictionaries, language tutorials, spoken samples of languages and much more. The mission is to list, categorize, and promote internet resources related to language learning, education, and use. Editor: Tyler Chambers.

  • Inter Active Terminology for Europe (IATE)
    A multi-lingual terminological database. The information it contains is drafet in 24 languages. Choose your source language and the target language, and enter a query.

  • Internet Dictionary Project 
    The goal of this project is to create royalty-free translating dictionaries through the help of the Internet's citizens. French-Italian-German-Portuguese-Spanish to and from English

  • Lexicool
    A directory of bilingual and mutilingual dictionaries.

  • LOGOS - Multilingual E-Translation Portal
    A freely-accessible database, compiled without any form of public contribution, updated and corrected by a network of professional translators. The dictionary currently has almost 4 million entries (total for all languages) and contains +7.5 million words (Catalan, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, Frens, German, Hungarian, Italian, Latino, Norwegian, Polish). A great service. 

  • Majstro
    An on-line multilingual translation dictionary.

  • Online Language Dictionaries and Translators
    Since 1996 "Bigben" attempts to place as many online dictionaries at your disposal as possible.

  • Travlang's Translating Dictionaries

  • Translation and drafting aids
    A service of the European Commission.Service,

  • Translator’s home companion, The
    A very useful source of information for the professional translator and those in need of translation services.

  • Yamada Language Guides
    Electronic guides with information on 115 languages, archives with texts, pictures and sounds, and many software (126 fonts for 40 languages).
















Monolingual Resources


  • An Englishman's Difficulties with the Dutch
    A funny description of the problems of an Englishman learning Dutch. Stories on the "IJ" disaster and the "-isch" stupidity.
  • Brief History of the Dutch language
    Presented by the Digitale Bibliotheek voor de Nederlandse Letteren (DBNL).
  • Bargoens - An introduction to Dutch slang, in Dutch.
  • Beginners’ Guide to Offline Language Materials: Dutch
    A list with books and other valuable offline materials for the beginning student of Dutch. Compiled and presented by Reinhard F. Hahn.
  • Dutch 101 - A written introduction to Dutch grammar and vocabulary, in English.
  • Dutch-English Study Group
    A group that is primarily geared towards Dutch or English "independent" learners, those learning on their own who have little to no contact with native speakers or helpers.
  • Een cursus nieuwe spelling - René Verbrugge.
  • Gebarentaal
    Online course manual alphabet for deaf-mutes.
  • Go Dutch
    A weblog for students of Dutch and non-native speakers.
  • Handspeak
    A practival sign language dictionary.
  • Holland Institute of Generative Linguistics (HIL)
    A research and training institute in the field of generative linguistics. HIL was established as a result of increasing collaboration among theoretical linguists at Leiden University, the University of Amsterdam, and the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. The focus of inquiry in HIL is on theoretical research in the fields of syntax, semantics, phonology and morphology. The site contains information on the research and training projects, publications of the HIL, and news on upcoming conferences and workshops.
  • Dutch Sayings and Standard Phrases
  • Mailinglist Netherlands
    Anybody learning Dutch can join to improve his or her Dutch. For this purpose native speakers, and non-native speakers with a fair command of Dutch, are invited to answer questions and correct mistakes, if any.
  • Nederlandse Taalunie
  • Onze Taal 
    Language advice and news. From: Genootschap Onze Taal (Den Haag, Netherlands).
  • Speak Dutch
    Learn Dutch from native speakers in an online course.
  • Taal op het WWW 
    Editor: Henk Schotel.
  • Taalthuis
    Pages on Dutch language (in English and Dutch). Editor: Marcel Heerink.
  • vertaler.be
    A compilation of dictionaries and translation resources categorized in languages and subjects.
  • Van Dale online 
    The best Dutch dictionary. Includes a section with language news.


  • Dictionary of English slang and colloquialisms used in the UK
  • Conjugate English Verbs
  • WordNet
    A lexical reference system whose design is inspired by psycholinguistinc theories of human lexical memory. English nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are organizaed into synonym sets, each representing one underlying lexical concept. WordNet has been developeted by the Cognitive Science Laboratory at Princeton University under direction of Professior George A. Miller.



  • Norwegian Language Council 
    Norsk språkråd is the Norwegian government's advisory body in matters pertaining to the Norwegian language and language planning (Norweggian, English, French and German version).


  • Learn Turkish (Babbel)
    Online courses to learn the Turkish language; includes listening exercises recorded by native speakers, grammer, online dictionary, pronunciation guide, vocabulary and information about Turkey.


  • Cambridge Dictionary of Sociology, The - Bryan S. Turner (ed.)
    Authoritative and comprehensive definitions and essays covering classical and contemporary sociology.
  • Catholic Encyclopedia, The - Sponsored by New Advent
  • Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology, The - George Ritzer & J. Michael Ryan
    Contains over 800 entries from the whole breadth of the discipline.
  • Diderot and d’Alembert’s Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers 
    Includes contributions of the most prominent philosophes such as Voltaire, Rousseau, d’Alembert, Marmontel, d’Holbach and Turgot. The online version will eventually include all seventeen volumes of text and eleven volumes of plates that composed the first edition. Presented by the ARTFL Encyclopédie Project at the University of Chicago.
  • Encarta Encyclopedia
    A free encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009 that contained more than 62,000 articles and numerous photos, illustrations, maps, charts, and tables.
  • Encyclopedia of Earth (EoE)
    A comprehensive, authoritative, and thorough resource all about our Earth and our relationship to it. EoE aims to provide accurate environmental information to assist readers in making personal chouces that relate to our world. The Sustainable Society Index (SSI) integrates the most important aspects of sustainability and quality of life of a national society in a simple and transparent way. The articles have been written by experts and scholars.
  • Encyclopædia Britannica
    The oldest and largest genereal reference in the English language. A search on this site will produce results from the Encyclopædia, as well as a directory of web sites, selected articles from magazines like Newsweek.
  • Encyclopedia.com - Electric Library.
    More than 100,000 articles from reference works —such as The Consise Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (Third Edition), Oxford’s World Encyclopedia, and the Encyclopedia of World Biography— have been assembled to provide free, quick and useful information on almost any topic. It covers all major fields of knowledge: politics, law, art, history, sports, literature, geography, science, and medicine. Extensive crosss-referencing allows users to expand their research through direct links to other articles within the Encyclopedia site and to other related web sites. Contains free citations and excerpts to periodical articles. You have to pay money to read full text of articles.
  • Encyclopedia Mythica
    Mythologies (Chinese, Etruscan, Greel, Japanese, Latvian, Mayan, Native American, Norse, Persian, Roman, and other), folklore, bestiary, heroid legends, Occult and mysticism, ancient (pagan) feast days. Created by Micha F. Lindemans.
  • Encyclopedia Smithsonian
    The Smithsonian Institution receives a great many public inquiries covering a wide range of topics. The Encyclopedia Smithsonian features anwers to frequently asked questions about Smithsonian and links to Smithsionian resources from A to Z. New information will be added continually. Covers topics such as armed forces history, anthropology, mineral sciences, musical history, physical sciences, servicces, textiles conservation, transport history, and vertebrate zoology.
  • Free Internet Encyclopedia 
    Internet accessible information on a variety of topics arranged in an encyclopediac manner. Created by: Clif Davis and Margaret Adamson Fincannon.
  • Funk and Wagnalls Encyclopedia
    The complete Funk & Wagnalls unabridged 29-volume encyclopedia, enriched with multimedia: animations, sounds, music, flags, maps, virtual tours, and more. Also, access the Reuters World News Service and Random House Webster’s College Dictionary with over 165,000 entries, Roget’s 21st Century Thesaurus, and an Interactive World Atlas.
  • Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia Online
    Online version of the popular Grolier Encyclopedia. A subscription is required for use, although a free trial is available. It contains 37,000 articles from the renowned Academic American Encyclopedia and includes pictures, maps, sounds, flags, timelines, and a yearbook. It also features a comphehensive atlas and the Grolier Internet Index, which links specific articles to editorially-selected web sites. The Brain Jam is a digital magazine for the knowledge generation.
  • Infoplease
    Online version of the popular almanac which you can browse by topic or search. An encyclopedia, almanac, dictionary, thesaurus, and atlas, all in one. It includes the Random House Websters College Dictionary and the Columbia Encyclopedia.
  • International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences - Neil J. Smelser & Paul B. Bates
    In-depth articles about topics in the social and behavioral sciences, including brief biographies of people in the fields.
  • Logical Fallacies
    An encyclopedia of errors of reasoning. Fallacious reasoning keeps us from knowing the truth, and the inability to think critically makes us vulnerable to manipulation by those skilled in the art of rhetoric. This encyclopedia can boost your ability to identify logical fallacies in the arguments of others, and to avoid them in your own arguments.
  • Online Papers on Consciousness
    A directory of more than 7.000 online papers on consciousness and related topics. Most papers are by academic philosophers or scientists. Compiled by David Chalmers and David Bourget (Australian National University).
  • Scholarpedia
    A peer reviews open access encyclopedia, where knowledge is curated by communities of experts. Scholarpedia improves on the anyone-can-edit idea of Wikipedia by making sure that the original author of all of its articles is an expert on the subject, that each article is peer-reviewed, and that any revisions of an article is first approved of by the original author. It offers scholarly articles on very complex subjects.
  • Sociology: a guide to reference and information sources - Stephen H. Aby, James Nalen, & Lori Fielding
    Recommendations for encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other reference sources in the general social sciences and sociology.
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) - Mirrors: Australia | Netherlands
    A dynamic encyclopedia which is responsive to new research. Each entry is maintained and kept up to date by an expert or group of experts in the field. All entries and updates are refereerd by the members of a distinguished Editorial Board before the are made public. The encyclopedia is a project of the Metaphysics Research Lab at the Center for the Study of Language and Information at Stanford University. Principal Editor: Edward N. Zalta.
  • Wikipedia
    A multilingual, web-based, free-content encyclopedia that is based on a model of openly editable content. Wikipedia is written collaboratively by largely anonymous volunteers who write without pay. Anyone with internet access can write and make changes to the articles, except in limited cases where editing is restricted to prevent disruption or vandalism. Users can contribute anonymously, under a pseudonym, or with their real identity.

Language, Style and Grammar Guides

  • Referencing: Citation of Electronic Sources (SocioSite)
  • Grammar and Language Courses
    Links to online grammar and language courses for over 100 languages. The criteria for inclusion is that the grammars are accurate and useful for learning the language they describe. The offerings range from "Survival Bengali" to "An Integral Dutch Course" to Beard’s own "On-line Russian Reference Grammar." An additional page of morphology links connects to sites that will conjugate verbs, assist in declensions, and provide morphological analysis in response to user input. Editor: Robert Beard (Chair of the Russian Program at Bucknell University).
  • Grammar Handbook - University of Illinois 
    The Handbook explains and illustrates the basic grammatical rules concerning parts of speech, phrases, clauses, sentences and sentence elements, and common problems of usage.
  • Strunk’s Elements of Style
    It includes sections on Elementary Rules of Usage, Elementary Rules of Composition, A Few Matters of Form, Words and Expressions Commonly Misused, and Words Commonly Misspelled.
  • Web Writing Style Resources
    Journalists and academics have their own style guides. But what resources are available for Web page writers? Besides the wide range of HTML and other coding resources, there are several writing style guides for people whose copy graces the Web. Here you find a collection of style guides.


  • Aaron Fuegi's Collected Quotations
    A personal collection.
  • Aphorisms Galore! 
    A place to browse, search, submit, discuss and rate aphorismes and witty sayings by famous and not-so-famous people.
  • Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations
    A search engine for words & authors, and a chronological list of primary authors. Here you can discover who said what and when they said it. The collection ends with the 19th Century.
  • Brainy Quote
    A large variety of quotes structured in categories like movies, sport, politics, women and Blackadder.
  • Frases Célebres - NoName Magazine
  • Good Quotes by Famous People
    A small collection of good quotes, from Gabriel Robins.
  • Latijnse Citaten
    Many Latin quotes and their Dutch translation, by Bouwe Brouwer.
  • Oneliners and proverbs - In English and Dutch.
  • Quotations Home Page
    Contains thousands of quotations, old and new, familiar and obscure, humorous and pompous, ironic and maybe even a little profound. A place for enjoyment, enlightenment, exploration and general reference. Editor: Steve Spanoudis.
  • The Quotations Page
    Michael Moncur’s Quotations Page features a rearchable database of over 27,000 humorous quotations from over 3.100 authors. If you’re looking for a quote on a particular subject or author, try this one.
  • Quotes about Science
    Like this one: “An atheist is a man who has no invisible means of support” [John Buchan].
  • Words to Remember: Quotes
    A collection of 100 fabulous quotes selected by Albert Benschop.

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