Environmental sociology- Ecology


Environmental sociology is the informed consideration of communities and their natural environment. This area focuses on the social components that influence the management of natural assets and cause natural problems, the ways in which these natural problems are socially constructed and defined as social problems, and societal reactions to these problems.

General Resources


Environmental action on energy, biodiversity, habitat, conservation and pollution. A searchable, annotated directory of over 600 green sites at whichyou can take action on as wide a range of environmental issues as can be found on the web. Backed by simple guides to campaigning and environmental issues similarly categorized.


Central European Environmetal Data Request Facility (CEDAR)
CEDAR provides computing and internetwork facilities to support international data exchange with the Central and Eastern European environmental community. The in-house telecommunications infrastructure supports full TCP/IP applications: (a) access to and communication with remote networks and information providers (telnet, FTP, World Wide Web); (b) global database search and retrieval; (c) subscription lists, bulletin boards, and on-line querying of CEDAR in-house databases. CEDAR is working with the Austrian National Focal Point (NFP) at the Austrian Federal Environmental Agency and other regional and global NFPs to support environmental information dissemination.


  • Earth Times
    Daily news and views on environment and development.
  • Earth Vision
    Environmental news, resources, information, and organizations. Don't forget to inspect the Links section.
  • Earth Watch
    An international nonprofit organization which supports scientific field research worldwide through its volunteers and scientists working together to improve our understanding of the planet. It's mission is to build a sustainable world through an active partnership between scientist and citizen. Through public participation in field research, Earthwatch helps scientists gather data and communicate information that will empower people and governments to act wisely as global citizens.
  • EcoMall
    A well structured site on a diversity of ecological problems. It's a mix of activism and green consumerism. Editor: Tom Kay.
  • EcoMarkt
    Claims to be the most comprehensive Dutch site on eco products and services, information on nature and environment, green management and ecotourism. Dutch only.
  • EcoNet
    EcoNet serves organizations and individuals working for environmental preservation and sustainability. It builds coalitions and partnerships with individuals, activist organizations and non-profit organizations to develop their use of the electronic communications medium. EcoNet maintains an extensive resource center sorted by category (from Acid Rain to Wildlife), and a comprehensive Directory of Organizations.
  • Economy and the Environment (EPASEAL)
    This program carries out research & analyses of the interactions & relationships between the economy and environmental pollution control as well as other aspects of environmental economics. This includes determining the economic benefits & costs of pollution control, the use of economic incentives for pollution control, and the size, composition, and impacts of the pollution control industry.
  • EnviroLink
    An online environmental community that unites hundreds of organizations and volunteers around the world in more than 150 countries. It provides a comprehensive guide with topical arranged environmental resources.
  • Environmental and Societal Impacts Group (ESIG)
    National Ctr. for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO, USA. A multidisciplinary research group at focusing on the interactions between society & the environment. Studies environmental & climate change, and the use & value of climate & weather information.
  • Environmental Inequality
    A project that examines environmental inequalities in Santa Clara County, CA (a County that contains both Silicon Valley and San Jose), and a bibliography on environmetal inequality. Editors: Andrew Szasz and Michael Meuser.
  • Environmental News Network (ENN)
    Provides environmental information and resources. Planet ENN is a free online magazine published weekly, includes articles on wildlife filmmaking, poaching in Russia, and earth-friendly living. The latest environmental news you will find ad ENN Newswire. Other services include ENN Radio, Factoids, This Week in History, Web Site of the Week, and CyberHiker. The ENN database is searchable.
  • Environmental Science
    Environmental science studies the effects of natural and unnatural processes, and of interactions of the physical components of the planet on the environment. The site advocates for environmental science education and careers. It helps future students to get reliable information on environmental sciences.
  • Epstein, Barbara
    Grassroots Environmentalism and Strategies for Social Change
    The grassroots environmental movement has played an important part in expanding the concept of environmentalism beyond preservation of the wilderness to include the impact of environmental hazards, and of the degradation of the environment more broadly, on the daily lives and especially the health of ordinary people. The constituency of grassroots environmentalism is diverse and is weighted toward those with less power and resources. It includes women and men, people of income levels ranging from very poor to upper middle class, whites and many different groups of color, but it is predominantly a movement of women and of people with relatively low incomes, and the movement is currently growing most rapidly among groups of color. This article gives a sketch of this movement, its development, the issues that it is concerned with, its dynamics of race and gender. It then addresses a particular aspect of the movement: its approach to the state.
  • European Environment Agency (EEA)
    The goal of the EEA is to provide the European Union and the Member States with high-quality information for policy-making and assessment of the environment, inform the general public, and to provide scientific and technical support to these ends. The site is maintained by the EAA and EIONET (European Environment Information and Observation NETwork).
  • European Environmental Law (EEL)
    Links to European environmental law sites and full text materials on some environmental treaties. Information on cases, legislation and other materials related to European Environmental Law. Don’t miss the introduction of Wybe Douema on European Environmental Law. Editors: Wybe Douma and Jürgen Lefevere.


  • Global Recycling Network (GRN)
    A recycling portal with company directories, business pages, news, career information from the recycling industry.
  • Greenpeace International
    The international coordinating body for the 43 national offices of Greenpeace in 30 countries.
  • Grist
    A website for environmental news and commentary.



Kleine Aarde, De
Dutch ecological organization. Their aim is to stimulate people for a environmental-friendly and healthy way of living, based on agricultural methods, eating habits, and the use of energy and ressources that don't harm the natural environment.


  • Milieudefensie
    Dutch association for the defense of the natural environment. Dutch branch of 'Friends of the Earth International'. The association has more than hundred local groups and organizes many actions and campaigns.
  • Milieuloket
    Information on environmental issues in the Netherlands. From: Parlementair Documentatie Centrum.
  • MilieuOnline
    Dutch environmental navigating pages: nature, ecology and wildlife.
  • Mill, John Stewart
    • [1874] On Nature
      The full text version of the essay “On Nature”, that was published in 1874 als the first of the three essays in the volume Nature, The Utility of Religion and Theism.


Novem - Nederlandse organisatie voor energie en milieu
The Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment concentrates on the various aspects of sustainable development. Dutch and English version.

New Ideas in Pollution Regulation (NIPR) 
It deals with the question, "how can governments, communities, and industry better understand and deal with the problems of pollution?" Provided by Prosody Communications in cooperation with the World Bank's Economics of Industrial Pollution Control research group. It is targeted at people and organizations interested in public policy issues relating to the cost-effective control of pollution, in developing countries.


Pollution Abatement & Reduction Councils (PARC)
An explanation of how pollution has played the major role in the "overfishing" scenario. The editor, Gösta H. Lovgren (a born-raised-retired commercial fisherman from Point Pleasant Beach, NJ.), proposes a solution: self financing Pollution Abatement and Reduction Councils make loans available to polluters to clean up their acts. It is not coercive in nature and creates thousands of jobs each year just in pollution control.


  • Society for Human Ecology (SHE)
    SHE is an international interdisciplinary professional society that promotes the use of an ecological perspective in research, education, and application.
  • Sustainable Society Foundation (SSF)
    A non-profit organization, established in 2006 with the objective of stimulating and assisting societies in their development towards sustainability. The SSF is based in The Netherlands and operates globally. The SSF has developed the Sustainable Society Index (SSI), which shows at a glance the level of sustainability of 151 countries.


  • Ultimate Green Shopping Guide
    Green shopping involves more than using reusable bags when going to grocery store and buying energy efficient bulbs. While both are part of green shopping, actually being a green shopper involves so much more. It means focusing on buying items that have little impact on or have been designed to help the environment. Green shoppers do not simply walk into a store and pick up the first item they seen, instead they do their research and make sure that what they buy fits in with their desire to live a green life, even if it means spending a little more or going out their way to shop at a store that specializes in green products. It takes a lot of focus to shop green. It can also take a lot of time and money. Learning how to shop green can help you make the best use of your time and avoid spending a lot of money in the process. You may also discover ways to shop green that you haven’t considered before.
  • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 
    UNEP publishes reports on worldwide environmental processes. It describes the environmental status and trends in seven regions, summarizes developments over time in regional policy responses,and concludes with an exploration, based on model analysis, of what we might expect in the future for a selected number of environmental issues if no major policy reforms are initiated.
  • University of Michigan
    School of Natural Resources & Environment


Journals, Magazines, and NewsLetters

  • BioCycle
    A journal on composting, renewable energy & sustainability. Shows how to process organic residuals such as yard trimmings, food waste, woody materials, biosolids, manure, high strength organic wastes, municipal solid waste (MSW), and other source separated feedstocks into value-added products.
  • Disasters [abstracts]
    A peer review quarterly journal published on behalf of the Overseas Development Institute (ODI). It provides a forum for academics, policy-makers and practitioners on high quality research and practice related to natural catastrophes, anthropogenic disasters, complex political emergencies and protracted crises around the world..
  • Earth Interactions [full text]
    A peer-reviewd electronic journal dealing with the interactions between the lithosphere, hydroshpere, atmosphere, and biosphere in the context of global issues or global change.
  • Earth Times
    An international newspaper focusing on the environment and sustainable development.
  • Electronic Green Journal (EGJ) [full text]
    A peer-reviewed electronic journal on international environmental topics such as assessment, conservation, development, disposal, hazards, pollution, resources, technology, and treatment.
  • ENDS Environment Daily
    A daily newsletter reporting breaking European environmental news. It is produced by Environmental Data Services Ltd. Users must pay an annual subscription to access the web version and to get an email version delivered to them.
  • emagazine.com [full text] 
    Provides information on allmost everthing an environmentalist needs to know: key environmental issues and trends, environmental news, industry and consumer products, food and environmental issues, commentary from leading thinkers and doers, reviews of new books and films, and announcements of campaigns, events and conferences.
  • Harvard Environmental Law Review (HELR) [abstracts] 
    Publishes articles on a broad reand of environmental affairs, such as land use; air, water, and noise regulation; toxic substances control; radiation control; energy use; workspace pollution; science and technology control; and resource use and regulation.
  • Human Ecology 
    An interdisciplinary quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on human ecology. The theoretical orientation of the journal emphasizes the problem-solving significance of human culture and behavior, from food procurement to systems defining kinship—not to mention political and religious life. The perspective generally embraced is that human ecology is part and parcel of the larger field of ecology and not simply analogous to it. Contributions to Human Ecology emphasize the complex ways in which humans shape and in turn are shaped by their environment.
  • Human Ecology Review
    A refereed journal published twice a year by the Society for Human Ecology. The Journal publishes peer-reviewed research and theory on the interaction between humans and the environment and other links between culture and nature, essays and applications relevant to human ecology, book reviews, and relevant commentary, announcements, and awards.
  • Journal of Industrial Ecology [abstracts]
    An international, multi-disciplinary quarterly designed to foster both understanding and practice in the emerging field of industrial ecology. Industrial ecology is a rapidly-growing field that systematically examines local, regional and global materials and energy uses and flows in products, processes, industrial sectors and economies. It focuses on the potential role of industry in reducing environmental burdens throughout the product life cycle, from the extraction of raw materials, to the production of goods, to the use of those goods and to the management of the resulting wastes. It is published by MIT Press.
  • Language and Ecology [full text]
    A magazine with short critical articles on discourses implicated in environmental destruction and exploration of alternative discourses which have the potential to contribute to ecological harmony.
  • Nature + Cluture (NC)  
    A forum for the international community of scholars and practitioners to present, discuss, and evaluate critical issues and themes related to the historical and contemporary relationships that societies, civilizations, empires, regions, nation-states have with nature. The journal contains a serious interpolation of theory, methodology, criticism, and concrete observation forming the basis of this discussion. NC eceives financial support for its editorial operations from the Department of Urban and Environmental Sociology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), Leipzig, Germany.
  • Organisation & Environment (OAE) 
    A leading international journal unique in its emphasis on the connection between the management of organizations and the multiple dimensions of the general environment. It publishes quarterly peer-reviewed research that sets new and relevant standards for rigorous thinking about the complex and relevant dimensions of sustainability - including an appropriate balance between and among social, natural and economic challenges, corporate social responsibility, ethics, and responsible corporate governance and business strategy. This research provides a crucial resource for the development of more effective environment-related organizational policy formulation, implementation and evaluation.
  • Rural Sociology
    An academic journal published on behalf of the Rural Sociological Society (RSS), a professional social science association that promotes the generation, application, and dissemination of sociological knowledge.
  • Society & Natural Resources (SNR) 
    The official Journal of the International Association for Society and Natural Resources (IASNR). SNR publishes a broad range of social science research and thinking on the interaction of social and bio-physical processes, policies and practices occurring around the world and at multiple scales. These involve attention to cultural, psychological, economic and political perspectives relating to forests, oceans, fisheries, soils, and water; and address a variety of topics such as people and protected areas/biodiversity conservation, globalization and capitalism, environmental justice, place/community-based conservation, community resilience, adaptive and collaborative management, sustainability, climate change, environmental attitudes and concerns, environmental hazards and risks, and human-nature relationships.

Research Centers & Projects

  • Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future (ACSF) - Ithaca, New York, USA 
    Information on publications, projects & programs, and interal organization.
  • Center for Economic and Social Studies on the Environment (CESSE) - Univ. of Brussels, Belgium. 
    Research on sustainable development indicators, socio-economic aspects of the environment, and related information systems. Links to sites on environment & pollution, growth & economic development, general & industrial economics, energy, costs-benefit analyses, depollution, impact assesment, environmental externalities, databases.
  • Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) - USA 
    The corner stone of NASA’s Mission to Planet Earth (MtPE) program and an integral part of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). NASA’s Mission to Planet Earth uses space- and ground-based measurement systems to provide the scientific basis for understanding global change. EOS, Earth Probe, Pathfinder, and related data products will be available at the Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs).
  • Environment Institute - University of Adelaide, Australia 
    The institute brings together research groups in fields of science, engineering and economics relating to the management and use of natural resources and infrastructure. The research contributes to improvements in the management of natural resources including water, soil, land and native flora and fauna, particularly under changing climate and economic conditions.
  • Estonian Environmental Research Center / Eesti Keskkonnauuringute Keskus (EKUK) - Tallinn, Estonia 
    EKUK is a leading chemical and physical lab analysis service provider in Estonia. The centre offers chemical and physical lab analysis, and geotechnical investigations. Their clients are private enterprises, private individuals and various state institutions.
  • European Tropical Forest Research Network (ETFRN) - Wageningen, The Netherlands 
    Tropical forest in its broadest sense is the main item of the network. ETFRN aims to contribute to the international effort towards wise, sustainable management and protection of (sub)tropical forests and woodlands.
  • Finnish Environment Institute / Suomen ympäristökeskus (SYKE) - Helsinki, Finland 
    A research institute and government agency under the Ministry of the Environment. It is both a research institute, and a centre for environmental expertise. SYKE’s research focuses on changes in the environment, and seeks ways to control these changes.
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) - Leipzig, Germany
  • Institute for Social Ecology (ISE) - Marshfield, Vermont, USA 
    An independent institution of higher education for the purposes of research, education, and outreach in the field of social ecology. The ISE offers workshops and ocnferences as well as its summer and BA program.
  • Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) - Edgewater, Maryland, USA 
    SERC provides science-based knowledge to meet the environmental challenges of the 21st century. It leads research on coastal ecosystems—where land meets the sea—to inform real-world decisions for wise policies, best business practices, and a sustainable planet.
  • WikipediaList of environmental research institutes

Directories - Guides

Google Scholar - Stand on the shoulders of giants

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