Sociological Theories and Perspectives
© 1996-2017 AByT ! All Rights Reserved.
- Asokan, N.
Theory of Social Development
Presented by the International Center for Peace & Development (ICPD).
- Astrosociology Research Institute (ARI)
Trying to understand space and society from a grounded perspective. Includes the Journal of Astrosociology (JAO)
- Social Capital Gateway
Resources for researchers and students interested in the study of 'social capital'. Editor: Fabio Sabatini.
- Conocimiento y Sociedad
A site on epistemology and social theory. Editor: Antonio Berthier (Universidad Mesoamericana).
- Critical Theory & Postmodern Thought
A large collection of links on the theoretisation of postmodernism. Editor: Martin Ryder (School of Education, University of Colorado at Denver, USA), who describes himself as "an engineer trapped in a teacher's mind".
An international, electronic review of books on theory, technology and culture. Sponsored by the Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory, reviews are posted periodically of key books in contemporary discourse as well as theorisations of major "event-scenes" in the mediascape. Editors: Arthur and Marilousie Kroker.
A list of the various theorists, some biographical information and a summary of their work. Comte, Marx, Spencer, Durkheim, Simmel, Weber, Veblen, Cooley, Mead, Park, Pareto and Sorokin. Editor: Larry Ridener.
- Durkheim Pages Resources on Durkheim
Devoted to the presentation of information concerning Emile Durkheim. Contents: Some full texts, a complete bibliography of Durkheim's work, a timeline describing important events related to Durkheim and the Third French Republic, a glossary of terms and concepts, a bibliography of secondary material, news, a list of Durkheim scholars and mailing list, and Durkheimian Studies information. Editor: Robert Alun Jones (Univ. of Illinois, USA).
- Gerardi, S.
 Functionalism 2.0 — Rethinking an America Tradition of Conservative Thought
Functionalism has long had a bad name in sociology as the handmaiden of elite interests, justifying all manner of inequality and power abuse by implying (and sometimes suggesting outright) that these things are functional for our society. As this article demonstrates however, this need not be the case. Functionalism can provide a useful rubric for understanding modern society and need not be the handmaiden of conservative thought.
In: The Socjournal, 7.6.2010
- A Gallery of Social Structures
The Network gallery documents work in progress in an efforts to visualize social structures. The aim is to develop and experience how automatic procedures can be combined with aesthetics to ease insight into usually complex phenomena. For presentations around thematic aspects of the datasets you follow the subject track, for more formal demonstrations of methodological approaches you can visit the technical laboratory. The underlying techniques and modelling problems are discussed in Simple Representations of Complex Networks. Editor: Lothar Krempel.
- Henslin, James M. - Southern Illionois University, Edwardsville, USA
Sociology - A Down-to-Earth Approach
Sociological resources organized by chapter of the textbook.
- Social Capital Gateway (SCG)
Resources for researchers and students interested in the study of social capital. The site publishes materials for the study of social capital and related topics in a multidisciplinary perspective. Editor: Fabio Sabatini.
- Social Science History: Time line for the history of science and social science
A time line from before writing began to the present, linked to Andrew Roberts' book Social Science History and to other resources, including extracts and works of authors. The alphabetical index of authors is very helpful. And so are the Main Chronological Headings in plain English.
- Stephan, Ed [1995-2008]
The Division of Territory in Society
- Timeline of Sociology
- Visual Studies
A semi-annual published journal from the International Visual Sociology Association (IVSA). It investigates the relationship between society and photographic, film and video images.
- WSCR - The Web Site for Critical Realism
An independent space for the study and promotion of critical realism. Presented by the Centre for Critical Realism (CCR).
- Anomie - Emile Durkheim Archive
- Atteslander, Peter / Gransow, Bettina / Western, John (eds.)
 Comparative Anomie Research: Hidden Potential for Social Development
- Caruana, Albert, Ramaseshan, B. / Ewing, Michael T.
 Anomia and fraudulent behavior by retail employees
Anomia describes the individual's lack of integration in social life. An examination of the literature on anomia and fraudulent behavior, an identification of measurement instruments and a survey among employees of a large retail chain. The psychometric properties of the instruments are confirmed and evidence of a link is provided. The implications for managers and theory are considered, limitations are noted and directions for future research are indicated.
- Perry, Richard
Alienation and Anomie
- Tsahuridu, Eva E.
 Anomie and Ethics at Work
In: Journal of Business Ethics, 69(2).
- Worldwide Anomie Research Network - Swiss Institute for Development (SID)
- Wikipedia: Anomie
Center for Non-Linear Science (CNS)
Concentrates on the development of the basic research design and analytic tools for studying non-linear social dynamics. This has been called the chaos theory, but here it is presented as a social theory of complexity.
- Center for Complex Systems Research (CCSR)
University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, USA.
A research group which studies phenomena of systems with a large flow, such as information flow on the internet. They use nonlinear dynamics, neural nets, cellular automata, genetic algorithms, and artificial life models to describe these complex systems.
- Chaos Society
The homepage for the Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology and Life Sciences. This international forum brings together researchers, theoreticians, and practioners interrested in applying dynamical (of chaotical) systems theory.
- Chaos Theory
A collection of essays on chaos theory and social dynamics. Most of them are written by the editor: T.R. Young (The Red Feather Institute for Advanced Studies in Sociology). For instance:
- Ho, Andrew
Chaos Theory - An Introduction
- Kolyada, S.F.
 Li-Yorke sensitivity and other concepts of chaos
- Free Dictionary
- Schueler. Gerald / Schueler, Betty J.
A brief History of the Concept of Chaos
Background, meaning and history of the development of chaos theory.
- Wikipedia: Chaos | Chaos_Theory
- Woods, Alan / Grant, Ted
 Chaos and Marxism
Chapter 17 of Reason in Revolt - Marxism and Modern Science.
- Bibliography on ethnomethodology [-1989]
Compiled by B.J. Fehr (Thomas Jefferson University), Jeff Stetson (Hosei University), with Yoshifumi Mizukawa (the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science).
- Bibliography on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis in the 1990s by: Paul ten Have (Univ. of Amsterdam, The Netherlands).
- Ethno/CA News
Information on Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis. Contains news, basic resources, conferences, recent publications and more. Editor: Paul ten Have (Univ. of Amsterdam, The Netherlands).
- Garfinkel, Harold
- Have, Paul ten - University of Amsterdam, Nederlands
-  Structuring writing for reading: HTML as an explicating device
Paper for the International conference: Ethnomethodology: East and West. Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, August 21-23, 1997.
- Methodological Issues in Conversation Analysis
Conversation Analysis, a research tradition that grew out of ethnomethodology, has some unique methodological features. It studies the social organization of 'conversation', or 'talk-in-interaction', by a detailed inspection of tape recordings and transcriptions made from such recordings. Ten Have describes some of those features in the interest of exploring their grounds.
Originally published in the Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique, Nr. 27 (June): 23-51.
- The Notion of the Matter: On the Rol of Membership Knowledge in Ethnomethodology
In: Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 3(3).
- Lapassade, Georges
- Lecerf, Yves
Le Champ dEtude de Ethnomethodologie
He defines ethnomethodology as a discipline that studies the local logics of social groups.
- Lomax, H. / Casey, N.
 Recording Social Life: Reflexivity and Video Methodology
In: Sociological Research Online 3(2).
- Mizukawa, Yoshifumi
An aspect on the origins of ethnomethodology
- Society for the Study of Symbolic Interaction (SSSI)
An international professional organization of scholars interested in the study of a wide range of social issues with an emphasis on identity, everyday practice, and language.
Sociology of Knowledge
|The Sociology of knowledge studies the social sources, forms and consequences of knowledge. Central questions are: how does social organization shapes both the content and structure of knowledge? Or, how do various social, cultural, political conditions shield people from truth? The sociology of knowledge is a weapon against prevalent myths and a method for eliminating bias from social science, so that it can master the fundamental public problems of the time.|
- Crawford, T. Hugh
 Interview with Bruno Latour
In: Configurations 1.2.
- Lanham, Richard A. - University of California, Los Angeles, USA
 The Implications of Electronic Information for the Sociology of Knowledge
Lanham argues that the fundamental operating system for the humanities is changing from the book to the digital multimedia computer screen. He outlines the consequences of this move for the creation, performance, teaching, and study of literature, music, and the visual arts. He concludes with a suggestion for how this movement from page to digital display might inform the administrative changes forced upon the university by the current shortage of money.
- Floridi, Luciano - University of Hertfordshire, UK
- The Galileo Project
A hypertext source of information on the life and work of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and the science of his time. The project is supported by the Office of the Vice President of Computing of Rice University. Editors: Albert Van Helden and Elizabeth Burr (Rice University, USA).
- Kearl, Michael - Trinity University, Texas, USA
Sociology of Knowledge
- Wilkins, John S. - Monash University, USA
Althusser, Louis [1918-1990]
Croce, Benedetto [1866-1952]
Fleissner, Peter [1944-]
 What to do with Marx? - Propositions on his Patrimony
Presentation given at the International Conference on Contemporary Marxism: Political Economics and Applied Economics Innovation. Guiyang, China, 9-11 March 2007
 The Marxian transformation problem revisited
Presentation given at the International Symposium on Socialist Market Economy and Other Issues. Beijing, China, 2-3 June 2007
 Neuere Gesichtspunkte der Arbeitswerttheorie
Presentation at "Berliner November 2007", Kybernetik - evolutionaere Systemtheorie - Dialektik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, 7-8 November 2007
 New aspects of the labor theory of value
Presentation at the Third Forum of the World Association for Political Economy (WAPE), Marxism and Sustainable Development, May 24-25, 2008 at Langfan City, China
 On the production of labour value and use value
in capitalist and pre-capitalist worlds
Presentation at the International Conference on Probabilistic Political Economy "Laws of Chaos" in the 21st Century.
July 14-17, 2008 at Kingston Hill, UK
 Marxistische Ökonomie 2009
Presentation for Terra Humana in Hofburg, 9 November 2009
 Zu einigen Aspekten der Marxschen Arbeitswerttheorie - Theoretisches und Empirisches
Presentation in the Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Kolloquium der Universität Graz, RESOWI-Zentrum,
Ilyenkow, Evald Vasilyevich [1924-1979]
Kautsky, Karl [1854-1938]
 The Class Struggle (Erfurt Program)
Published by Charles H. Kerr & Co, 1910. Translated by William E. Bohn. Askew.
 Trades Unions and Socialism
In: International Socialist Review 1(10), April 1901. Translated: E. Dietzgen.
 The Intellectuals and the Workers
In: Die Neue Zeit 22(4), 1903. Printed in English in the April 1946 edition of Fourth International.
 Ethics and the Materialist Conception of History
Publshed by Charles H. Kerr & Co. Translated by John B. Askew.
 Foundations of Christianity
Published by Russel and Russel, 1953. Translated by Henry F. Mins.
 Foundations of Christianity
 The Road to Power
 Fiance-Capital and Crises
In: Social Democrat, London, Vol XV, 1911.
 Are the Jews a Race?
 The Dictatorship of the Proletariat
 Terrorism and Communism
 Epitaph of Lenin
In: Izvestia, 1924.
 The Labour Revolution
 Hitlerism and Social-Democracy
In: Joseph Shaplen/David Shub (ed.) , Socialism, Fascism, Communism. American League for Democratic Socialism, 1934.
 Marxism and Bolshevism - Democracy and Dictatorship
In: Joseph Shaplen/David Shub (ed.) , Socialism, Fascism, Communism. American League for Democratic Socialism, 1934.
 Social Democracy versus Communism
Rand School Press
Presented by Marxists.org.
Korsch, Karl [1886-1961]
Lukács, Georg [1885-1971]
Luxemburg, Rosa [1871-1919]
Marx, Karl [1818-1883]
- Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels
All the works of Marx & Engels in chronological order. Includes the complete range of the 43 volumes of the German edition MEW.
- Marx and Engels' Writings
A collection of writings in economic and social theory, presented by the EServer.
- Marxist Internet Archive (MIA)
A continually expanding archive with the a very large database of Marxism. The Writers Archive contains collection resources (works, biographies, letters and images) on many famous marxists. It includes a fast search facility. Some days you just can't seem to remember exactly where, among the 40,000 pages of the collected works of Marx and Engels, you read that quote. M/E SEARCH will help narrow the hunt.
- Marxist Sociology Section of the ASA
A resource and meeting point for Marxist scholars from the American Sociological Association. The site provides information on the people of the Marxist Section, Announcements (newsletter, session new), and about Marx and Marxist Theory.
Mehring, Franz [1846-1919]
Mészáros, István 
Trotski, Leon [1879-1940]
The Trotsky Internet Archive
Directed by David Walters, and presented by marxists.org.
Biographies, Sketches, Autobiographies, and Memoirs of Leon Trotsky
Presented by marxists.org.
 Communist Policy Toward Art
Source: Trotsky on Literature and Art, Pathfinder Press.
 The Social Roots and Social Function of Literature
Source: Trotsky on Literature and Art, Pathfinder Press.
 What is Proletarian Culture, and is it Possible?
Source: Trotsky on Literature and Art, Pathfinder Press.
 The History of the Russian Revolution (3 Volumes)
Translated by Max Eastman
 My Life or [pdf]
Published by Charles Schribner's Sons, NY.
 The Permanent Revolution & Results and Prospects
Permanent Revolution was first published in Russian in Berlin in 1930. The English translation of John G. Wright was published in 1931. First publication of Results & Prospects was in St. Petersburg in 1906. The first English translation was published by the Russian Soviet Government in 1921. There's also a complete pdf version of this text.
 Revolution Betrayed. What is the Soviet Union and where is it going?
Translated by Max Eastman.
 The ABC of Materialist Dialectics
Source: A Petit-bourgeois Opposition in the Socialist Workers Party, Dec. 15 1939.
 In Defense of Marxism
World Socialist Web Site
This site and its biweekly journal, The International Workers Bulletin (IWB) provide news reports on major world events, political analysis and commentary on a wide range of subjects. It is their hope that the material presented by the IWB will contribute to a scientific understanding of the problems that confront the modern workers' movement. The site has been established by the Socialist Equality Party in the United States, in collaboration with the International Committee of the Fourth International, to address the urgent need for a revolutionary socialist response to the crisis of the world capitalist system. It is dedicated to "the revival of a socialist and working class internationalism, based on genuine Marxist principles". All articles are full-text and free.
Rational Choice & Game Theories
- Axelrod, Robert - University of Michigan, USA
Complexity of Cooperation
An archive that contains software, documentation, bibliographies, and other resources connected with Robert Axelrods book The Complexity of Cooperation: Agent-Based Models of Competition and Collaboration (Princeton University Press, 1997). Including supporting material
- Brembs, Bjön
Chaos, cheating and cooperation: potential solutions to the Prisoner's Dilemma
Article about the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma (IPD) as a standard model for the evolution of cooperation. After a critical discussion of tit-for-tat and stochastic strategies as solutions, a new solution is offered: chaos.
- Buck, Andrew, J.
An Introduction to Game Theory with Economic Applications
- Center for Rationality and Interactive Decision Theory - Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Engaged in research into the various aspects of rationality in decision-making: making decisions in a manner calculated to yield maximal benefit. Of particular interest is interactive decision theory ("game theory"), which analyzes what happens when rational people with different goals interact, each making his own decisions on the basis of what is best for him - while taking into account that the others are doing the same. Rationality and interactive decision theory underline much of economic theory and have had an important impact on such diverse areas as evolutionary biology, political science, computer science, social psychology, law, statistics, philosophy and the foundations of mathematics.
- Elster, Jon
- Games and Software
A library of game theory software and tools for the construction and analysis of finite extensive (n-person) games and strategic games. Gambit is a set of software tools for doing computation on finite, noncooperative games. It has a graphical interface for interactively building and analyzing general games in extensive or strategy form; a number of command-line tools for computing Nash equilibria and other solution concepts in games; and, a set of file formats for storing and communicating games to external tools. All Gambit features are available through the use of a graphical interface, which runs under multiple operating systems. The Gambit Project was founded in the mid-1980 by Richard McKelvey at the California Institute of Technology (USA).
- Zero Sum Game Solver
David Levine gives you a chance to play some games: Zero-Sum Game Solver, Guessing Game & Cooperative Learning Game.
- Prisoners Dilemma Game
A fiendish cyberspace wizard has locked you and Serendip into a diabolical game with 5 rules.
- Interactive strategy games
This 'game theory without the theory' is presented by the GameTheory.Net.
- Game Theory.net
A resource for educators and students of game theory. The site contains lecture nots, links to text books, and interactive applets and games. Editor: Mike Shor (Vanderbilt University, USA).
- Gintis, Herbert
- University of Massachusetts, USA
-  Game Theory Evolving
Gintis presents an undergraduate/graduate text on advanced game theory (bargaining, priors, probability theory and Nash equilibrium). Only the preface is free available, but in the paper section there is other material on game theory (and other topics).
-  The Bounds of Reason: Game Theory and the Unification of the Behavioral Sciences
Gintis argues that game theory is an indispensable tool in modeling human behavior. Behavioral disciplines that reject or peripheralize game theory are theoretically handicapped. However, the game theory needs a broader social theory to have explenatory power. Gintis wants to contribute to the task of unifying the behavioral sciences. One of his controversial central thesis is: The bounds of reason are not forms of irrationality but rather forms of sociality.
-  A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution - with Samuel Bowles
Princeton University Press. July 21, 2013.
Why do humans, uniquely among animals, cooperate in large numbers to advance projects for the common good? This generous and civic-minded behavior is widespread and cannot be explained simply by far-sighted self-interest or a desire to help close genealogical kin. The authors show that the central issue is not why selfish people act generously, but instead how genetic and cultural evolution has produced a species in which substantial numbers make sacrifices to uphold ethical norms and to help even total strangers. For thousands of generations, cooperation with fellow group members has been essential to survival. Groups that created institutions to protect the civic-minded from exploitation by the selfish flourished and prevailed in conflicts with less cooperative groups. Key to this process was the evolution of social emotions such as shame and guilt, and our capacity to internalize social norms so that acting ethically became a personal goal rather than simply a prudent way to avoid punishment.
-  Game Theory in Action: An Introduction to Classical and Evolutionary Models - with Stephen Schecter
Princeton University Press. April 5, 2016.
A textbook about using game theory across a range of real-life scenarios. From traffic accidents to the sex lives of lizards, from crime-control strategies to climate-change negotiations, and the power of the Oracle at Delphi. The authors show students how game theory can be applied in diverse areas including animal behavior, political science, and economics. It a substantial treatment of evolutionary game theory, where strategies are not chosen through rational analysis, but emerge by virtue of being successful.
- International Game Theory Review (IGTR) [full text]
- International Journal of Game Theory (IJGT) [abstracts]
- International Society of Dynamic Games (ISDG)
The society on the field of dynamic game theory that promotes interactions among researchers interested in this field of academic study.
- McCain, Roger A.
A nice introduction to most of the essential ideas in game theory.
- Melberg, Hans O.
Decision Theory: Papers by Hans O. Melberg
- Levine, David K. - UCLA, USA
What is Game Theory?
Levine explains what (noncooperative) game theory largely deals with: how intelligent individuals interact with one another in an effort to achieve their own goals. He gives one instructive example, the very famous Prisoners Dilemma game. When you like to learn more about game theory, Levine suggests some good books to study.
- Polak, Benjamin - Yale University, USA
- Rachels, Stuart - University of Alabama
 On Three Alleged Theories of Rational Behavior
What behavior is rational? Its rational to act ethically, some think. Others endorse instrumentalism about rational behavior. Still others say that acting rationally always involves pursuing ones self-interest. Many philosophers have given each of these answers. But these answers dont really conflict; they arent vying to describe some shared concept or to account for some common subject matter. Insofar as this matter is debated, it is a pseudo-debate. The different uses of rational action differ merely in meaning.
In: Utilitas, 21(4): 506-520.
- Roth, Al
- Walker, Paul (Univ. of Canterbury, New Zealand)
History of Game Theory
The timeline starts in first fice centuries A. D. Game theory started in with the socalled marriage contract problem in the Babylonian Talmud (you might call it a bigamist dilemma). Further on the road you will meet James Waldegrave, John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern, Herbet Simon, Kuhn and Braithwaite. The journey will be concluded after you read the excellent bibliography.
- Zagare, Frank C. (Boston University, USA)
Recent Advances in Game Theory and Political Science
Evolution: What is life’s history on Earth?
A resource of the American Institute of Biological Sciences. It contains a collection of articles on several topics of evolutionary sciences.
- Archaelogical Finds of Early Humans
Evolution embodies the overall changes of one or more inherited traits found in populations of different organisms over an extended period of time. Human evolution or anthropogeny describes the origin, evolution and speciation of Homo sapiens from other hominids, great apes and mammals. The evolutionary cycle of the modern human refers to the genus Homo. However, studies often trace back human evolution through other hominids, such as the Australopithecines, where the Homo genus emerged from about 2.3 to 2.4 million years ago on the modern continent of Africa. Humans underwent a period of speciation along with the chimpanzees roughly 5 to 7 million years ago.
- Becoming Human
An interactive documentary experience that tells the story of our origins. It contains up-to-date scientific information about the study of human evolution and paleoanthropology. The site has been developed by the Arizona State Universitys Institute of Human Origins (IHO) and has won a Webby Award for the Best Science Site.
The web companion to the British television special presents a richt compilation of features, including the full text of The Origin of the Species with an illustrated guide from the BBC. Natural Selections is a collection of video conversations that include Douglas Adams on the lemurs of Madagascar, and David Attenborough on the Archeopteryx, an extinct creature that was part bird, part reptile. The site includes a number of articles by Darwin experts (Adrian Desmond, Richard Dawkins), and an extensive bibliography compiled by John S. Wilkins.
- Colby, Chris
Introduction to Evolutionary Biology
A definition of of evolutionary and an attempt to explain basics of the theory of evolution and correct many of the misconceptions. Includes a large collection of links on evolutionary biology and the creation/evolution controversy.
- Darwin, Charles [1809-1882]
- Dawkins, Richard
- The World of Richard Dawkins - Evolution, Science, and Reason
- [1976/1989] The Selfish Gene (Google Books) | idem (Amazon)
Genes are selfish, even when seemingly altruistic. The world of the selfish gene is one of savage competition, ruthless exploitation, and deceit. But there are also acts of apparent altruism found in nature. Bees commit suicide when they sting to protect the hive, and birds warn the flock of an approaching hawk. Do these acts contravene the fundamental law of gene selfishness? Dawkins denies it. But he also shows that the selfish gene is the subtle gene and that our species might have the power to rebel against the designs of the selfish gene. Read Chapter 11 - Memes: the new replicators.
- [1982/2016] The Extended Phenotype - The long reach of the gene
New edition with an afterword by Daniel Dennett.
An analysis of the evolution of life, and in particular of the logic of natural selection and the level in the hierarchy of life at which natural selection can be said to act.
- [1986/2006] The Blind Watchmaker — Why the Evidence of Revolution Reveals a Universe without Design
Dawkins explains why the evidence of evolution reveals a universe without design. One of the most famour arguments of the creationist theory of the universe is this: just as a watch is too complicated and too functional to have springs into existence by accident, so too must all living things, with their far greater complexity, be purposefully designed. Dawkins demonstrates that this analogy (Argument from Design) is false. Natural selection is a unconscious, automatic, blind yet essentially non-random process that has no purpose in mind. If it can be said to play the role of watchmaker in nature, it is the blind watchmaker.
-  Growing up in the universe [video]
At the Royal Institution, Richard Dawkins asks us to look at our universe with new eyes. Packed with big questions and illuminating visuals, this memorable journey through the history of life magnifies the splendor of evolution and our place in it.
-  River out of Eden: A Darwinian View of Life
A river of DNA flows through time and through ourselves. How did the replication bomb we call "life" begin and where in the world or in the universe is it heading? Like all living things, human beings are mere vehicles of information, gene carriers whose primary purpose is propagatin of their own DNA. Dawkins explains evolution as a flowering river of genes, genes meeting, competing, uniting, and sometimes separating to form a new species.
-  Climbing Mount Improbable
Case studies of natural selection in action. The human eye is so complex and works so precisely that one might believe its current shape and function must be the product of design. How could such an intricate object have come out by chance? Yet this is exactly what Dawkins argues: life evolves through the accident of mutation, and perfection in the natural world is the result of supreme, and fascinating, improbability. The metaphor of Mount Improbable represents this combination of perfection and improbability.
-  Break the Barrier, part 1 [9:40], 2 [9:51], 3 [7:35], 4 [9:20], 5 [8:19], 6 [7:33]
In this documentary from the Channel-4 series Dawkins meets people who have experienced the wonders of science first-hand. We meet the astronomer who first discovered pulsars, the geneticist who invented DNA fingerprinting, a scientist who discovered a protein that causes cancer, and others.With so many expressing paranormal beliefs and ignorance of science, Dawkins encourages viewers to contrast these ancient superstitions with the power and beauty of our scientific achievements and understanding. Dawkins interviews famous admirers of science such as Douglas Adams and David Attenborough, and asks them why science means so much to them. We also see how dangerous ignorance of science can be in classrooms, courts, and beyond.
-  Darwin and Darwinism
An explanation of why Darwin was important and the theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. First published in the British Edition of Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 98.
-  Unweaving the Rainbow:
Science, Delusion and the Appetite for Wonder
Keats believed that Newton had destroyed all the poetry of the rainbow by reducing it to the prismatic colors. Dawkins guides us towards the opposite conclusion: science is, or ought to be, the inspiration for great poetry. Dawkins says that Newton's unweaving is the key to much of modern astronomy and to the breathtaking poetry of modern cosmology. Mysteries don't lose their poetry because they are solve: the solution often is more beautiful than the puzzle, uncovering deeper mystery. So human beings can always keep their appetite for wonder.
-  Militant Atheism [video]
In this TEDTalk Dawkins urges all atheists to openly state their position -- and to fight the incursion of the church into politics and science. A fiery, funny, powerful talk.
-  A Devils Chaplain: Reflections on Hope, Lies, Science, and Love
- [2004/2016] The Ancestors Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution
-  Queerer than we can suppose: the strangeness of science [22:43]
In this TEDTalk Dawkins makes a case for thinking the improbable by looking at how the human frame of reference limits our understanding of the universe.
-  The God Delusion
Dawkins asserts the irrationality of belief in God and the grievous harm religion has inflicted on society, from the Crusades to 9/11. He examines God in all his forms, from the sex-obsessed tyrant of the Old Testament to the more benign (but still illogical) Celestial Watchmaker favored by some Enlightenment thinkers. Dawkins puts theological doctrines to the same kind of scrutiny that any scientific theory must withstand. His book has been called the most coherent and devastating indictment of religion. There is no God. All religion is wrong. In this video interview Dawkins explains why religion is absurd and pointless.
-  Documentary: The God Delusion, part 1 |
2 | 3 | 4 | 5 [video]
Dawkins explores the unproven beliefs that are treated as factual by many religions and the extremes to which some followers have taken them. He argues that the process of non-thinking called faith is not a way of understanding the world, but instead stands in fundamental opposition to modern science and the scientific method, and is divisive and dangerous.
-  The Virus of Faith, part 1 [9:54],
2 [10:05], 3 [9:50] 4 [9:54], 5 [8:42]
In this documentary Dawkins opines that the moral framework of religions is warped, and argues against the religious indoctrination of children.
-  Hard Talk, part 1 [9:13], 2 [9:56], 3 [3:57]
Richard Dawkins is interviewed by the BBCs Stephen Sackur for News24s HARDtalk.
-  God Strikes Back, part 1 [10:49], 2 [9:23], 3 [9:30], 4 [9:59], 5 [9:09]
This 2008 Channel-4 documentary is part of the series The Genius of Darwin. Dawkins examines why Darwins theory remains one of the most controversial ideas in history.
-  The Enemies of Reason: 1. Slaves to Superstition [47:54], 2. The Irrational healt Service [47:48]
According to Dawkins there are two ways of looking at the world: through faith and superstition or through the rigours of logic, observation and evidence — in other words, through reason. Reason and a respect for evidence are precious commodities, the source of human progress and our safeguard against fundamentalists and those who profit from obscuring the truth. Yet, today, society appears to be retreating from reason. Apparently harmless but utterly irrational belief systems from astrology to New Age mysticism, clairvoyance to alternative health remedies are booming. Dawkins confronts what he sees as an epidemic of irrational, superstitious thinking. He explains the dangers the pick and mix of knowledge and nonsense poses in the internet age, and passionately re-states the case for reason and science.
-  The Greatest Show on Earth - The Evidence for Evolution
Systematic opposition to the fact of evolution is now flourishing as never before, especially in America. Teachers witness insidious attempts to undermine the status of science in their classrooms. Richard Dawkins takes on creationists, including followers of Intelligent Design and all those who question the fact of evolution through natural selection. He sifts through fascinating layers of scientific facts and disciplines to build a cast-iron case.
In this video Dawkins introduces his book: Introduction to the book
In this interview Dawkins explains why this book is here to prove once and for all that humans did not walk with dinosaurs. He tries to shake some sense into creationists: “I suppose anybody who reads it should no longer be capable of thinking evolution isnt a fact. I’d like to think theres got to be something wrong with people who finish the book and dont think that.”
-  Creationists, now they're coming for your children
In: The Times / The Sunday Times, August 23, 2009.
Dawkins argues that people who reject the theory of evolution more than 40 per cent of the American population should be placed on a level with Holocaust deniers.
-  The Selfish Gene & Unselfish Humankind, part 1 | 2 | 3 [video]
-  The Selfish Gene Prologue [video]
-  Should doctors be Darwinian? [video]
-  The Magic of Reality: How We Know What's Really True
-  An Appetite for Wonder: The Making of a Scientist
- Wikipedia: Richard_Dawkins
A serie of articles on evolution, presented by 2think.org.
- Evolution and Human Behavior
An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research, Theory and Integrative Reviews, with Open Peer Commentary. Official journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society (EHB).
- Evolutionary Theory
An organization dedicated to promoting the biological sciences and evolutionary theory. Youll find papers, an archive, a mailing list and a chat room.
Learning about evolution through interactive simulation. Created by Alan R. Lemmon.
- Fog, Anger - Copenhagen, Denmark
-  Cultural r/k Selection
In: Journal of Memetics
-  Cultural Selection
An interdisciplinary theory that challenges traditional sociology by its superior ability to explain the irrational or unplanned aspects of culture. It seems that our society is not as rational as we would like to believe.
-  The gap between cultural selection theory and sociology
Cultural selection theorists and sociologists are so far from each other in terms of concepts and methods that they can hardly communicate and understand each others theories,
even though they are studying the same phenomena. The strengths and weaknesses of each of these two paradigms are discussed. As both paradigms have something valuable to offer, which
the other hasnt, there is every reason to try to reconcile the two. This paper offers some suggestions as to why the sociological tradition has drifted away from the methods of the natural sciences, which cultural selection theory adheres to. The
communication gap between the two camps is analyzed in terms of cognitive psychology, and some suggestions for bridging the gap are offered.
Paper presented at the 2003 meeting of the International Society for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Biology.
-  Explaining unintended developments with cultural selection theory
Cultural selection theory has been rejected by many social scientists. The objections against this theory are listed and commented. Some of the objections can be dismissed as
expressions of preference for one perspective over another. Different perspectives lead scientists to make different kinds of discoveries, but all perspectives are valid, and no theory
or perspective can cover all aspects of social phenomena.
The limitations of cultural selection theory are discussed and some improvements are proposed. It is concluded that cultural selection theory can explain certain phenomena that other theories cannot explain, especially phenomena that are unplanned or unintended.
- [2006/9] An Evolutionary Theory of Cultural Differentiation
In: Proceedings of the XV world congress of the International Union for Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences Lisbon 2006. Publishers of British Archaeological Reports, Oxford 2009.
-  Towards a universal theory of competition and selection
Competition takes place in many different spheres of life. This paper compares observations from economics, evolutionary biology, memetics and other fields of study in order to find similarities and differences between competition phenomena and their effects in different fields. A tentative framework is constructed for
describing different competition phenomena and their effects. A systematic study of competition has many potential applications. For example, the fields of cultural dynamics and political communication could possibly benefit from a more systematic theoretical focus on the effects of competition.
-  Can a collapse of current economic empires be predicted?
The article applies a number of theories with predictive potential from diverse areas including economics, history,
systems theory and evolutionary psychology in an attempt to look into the future world situation. Current political and economic power structures in the world have certain similarities with great empires of the past, but also important differences. Four
possible future scenarios are constructed, all of which indicate pervasive changes in the power structures of the world. None of the four scenarios are completely avoiding economic chaos, overexploitation of resources and destruction of environment.
- International Society for Human Ethology (ISHE)
ISHE encourages empirical research in all fields of human behavior using the full range of methods developed in biology and the human behavioral sciences and operating within the conceptual framework provided by evolutionary theory.
- Kenyon, Paul (Department of Psychology, University of Plymouth, Devon, UK)
Biological Bases of Behaviour
Learning material for students of evolutionary psychology and behavioral neuroscience. It covers themes like neurotransmission, depression, schizophrenia, hormones & stress, drug dependence & anxiety, animal behaviour, and psychosexual differentiation. The sections contain a lecture overview, graphics from transparencies used in class, audio clips, and animated images.
- McEvoy, Chad Joseph 
A Consideration of the Sociobiological Dimensions of Human Xenophobia and Ethnocentrism
- Palomar College
The Taxonomy and General Characteristics
of Prosimians, Monkeys, Apes, and Humans.
A tutorial in which the family Hominidae (which includes our species, Homo sapiens) is analyzed.
- Evolution: Humans
A journey into where we're from and where we're going. In the 8 million years or so since the earliest ancestors of humans diverged from the apes, at least a dozen humanlijke species, called hominids, have lived on Earth. Fifty thousand years ago, something happened the modern human mind emerged, triggering a creative, technological, and social explosion. What forces contributed to that breakthrough? Where might our power of mind ultimately lead us?
- Origins of Humankind
A portal for the human evolution community.
- TalkOrigins Archive, The
Exploring the Creation/Evolution Controversy. Talk.origins is a Usenet newsgroup devoted to the discussion of biological and physical origins. Most discussions center on the creation/evolution controversy; other topics of discussion include the origin of life, geology, biology, catastrophism, cosmology and theology. Its a collection of articles and essays, most of which have appeared in talk.origins at one time or another.
A French site that aims at the vulgarization of sociobiology. The site offers a definition and basic concepts of sociobiology, and an introduction in sociobiological theory. Editor: Barhouf.
- Wilkins, John [1996-2003] (Melbourne, Australia)
Darwin's Precursors and Influences
- Wilson, Edward O.
- Introduction: What is Sociobiology?
In: Michael S. Gregory, Anita Silvers, and Diane Sutch (eds.) Sociobiology and Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Critique and Defense. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, pp. 1-12.
-  Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge
In: Los Angeles Times, July,9,1998. Excerpts of his conversation with Times medical writer Terence Monmaney.
- Bibliographic Resources on Linguistics
Editor: Harold F. Schiffman (University of Pennsylvania, USA)
- Center for Language, Interaction & Culture - University of California at Los Angeles, USA
- Constructed Human Languages, edited by Chris Bogart
- Language and Social Interaction
A devision of the National Communication Association (NCA).
- Language Variation and Change
- Linguist List
A large linguistic resource providing information on language and language analysis.
- Linguistic Data Consuortium
An interdisciplinary research project of the Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) at the University of Pennsylvania, whose goal is to foster fundamental research in the study of human and animal communication by providing standards and tools for creating, searching, and publishing primary linguistic materials via networked computers. It emphasizes the linkage of transcripts and other annotations to digitized video and audio records of real-life interactions.
- Linguistic Society America
- Tannen, Deborah - Georgetown University, USA
An introduction to the analysis of language 'beyond the sentence'.
- Virtual Library: Applied Linguistics
- Winford, Donald - Ohio State University, USA
Languages in Contact
What happens when people speaking different languages are having regular contacts? In some cases only a few words are borrowed, while in others whole new languages may be formed. The author analyses the dynamics of language contact from a linguistic perspective.
- Wolfram, Walt - North Carolina State University, USA
Language as Social Behavior
An explanation of the basic notion underlying sociolinguistics: language use symbolically represents fundamental dimensions of social behavior and human interaction.
Sociology of Time
- Bergman, Werner
 The Problem of Time in Sociology
A survey of sociological and psychological literature dealing with the problem of time. First the contributions of the classical writers on the sociology of time are discussed: Durkheim, Schütz, Sorokin, Merten and Mead. Then six themas in de contemporary sociology of time are examined: (1) time perspective and time orientation; (2) temporal ordening and social structure: time reckoning and the social construction of time schedules; (3) the time structure of specific social systems and profession; (4) the evolution of social consciousness of time; (5) social change and time; and (6) the concern with time in social theory and methodology.
In: Time & Society, 1(1): 81-134
- Domingues, José Maurício
Sociological Theory and the Space-Time Dimension of Social Systems
In: Time & Society, 4(2): 58-66
- Daylight Saving Time
- Gleick, James
Faster - The acceleration of just about everything
Were speeding up; our technology is speeding up; our arts and entertainment and the pace of invention and change its all speeding up. And we care. If we dont understand time, we become its victims.
- Kearl, Michael - Trinity University, Texas, USA
The Times of Our Lives - Investigations into Socio-chronology
A Sociology of Time and Social Rhythms. A study of time and the various timetables and rhythms that shape our behaviors and thoughts. The issues are: the different meanings we give to each day of the week & months of the year; the "quality time" that working parents worry about sharing enough of with their children; the pressure we feel to be "on time" in the face of dreaded deadlines; the various social clocks whose tickings seem to govern our lives, such as the ages at which we believe we should be married, have children, or be "peaking" in our careers; the emergence of "flexitime" and four-day weeks in the world of work; and the types of time that religions impose to fortify the moralities of their members, such as eternity in heavens or hells, purgatory time, or escaping the cycle of death and rebirth.
- Lee, Heejin / Liebenau, Jonathan
 Time and the Internet at the Turn of the Millennium
In: Time & Society: 9(1):43-56
Reflections on the possible changes which the Internet may have on our concept of time have focused on notions of `timeless time' (Castells), `absolute time for everybody' (Negroponte), and `virtual time'.
- Moore, Carol
Sunspot Cycles and Activist Strategy
- National Museum of American History
An exploration of the changing ways we have measured, used and thought about time over the past 300 years. It describes the history of keeping time from the marking time (marking days by rising and setting sun, phases of the moon, and cycles of hunger and sleep) to the expanding time of the digital age where we count nanoseconds and even picoseconds (trillionths of a second).
- Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art
Tempus Fugit: Time Flies
A wonderful designed exhibit on the character of time. It features sections on 20th Centrury Time, World Times, and Conservation Time. The 20th Century time takes you on a walk through the century - from the theory of relativity to the internet - and demonstrates the altered sense of time. World Times concentrates on different conceptions of time embodied in art from primitive times to the present. Western culture sees time as a single line, leading from past to present to future. But some cultures see time very differently: as a poetic journey, as the memory of an ancestor, or even as a cosmic cycle. Here you can discover different meanings of time. In Conservation Time you can see how conservation science can uncover the history of a work's composition and the changes wrought upon it over the course of its lifetime. You can, for instance, see that behind the final version of Bronzinos Portrait of a Young Man there are two other hidden versions.
- Philippe, Patek
This Swizz watchmaker created some impressive multimedia presentations to let us understand the hours, minutes and seconds. He explores time as it has occured to priests, poets, writers and painters across civilizations and through history.
- Time & Society
An international peer reviewed journal that publishes articles, reviews, and scholarly comment discussing the workings of time and temporality across a range of disciplines. It focuses on methodological and theoretical problems, including the use of time in organizational contexts. Youll also find critiques of and proposals for time-related changes in the formation of public, social, economic, and organizational policies.
A collection of modern cinematic effects created by playing with time.
- Wikipedia: Time | Eight-hour-day | List_of_cycles | Season
Clocks - Time Measurement
- A Walk through Time - The Evolution of Time Measurement through the Ages
Presented by a NIST Physical Measurement Labratory.
- Clockworks - From Sundials to the Atomic Second
An exhibit presented by Britannica.com
- Horology -The Index
Presented by the National Association of Watch & Clock Collectors
The science of time, timekeepers (clocks, watches) and timekeeping. Provides a comprehensive index and crosslinks to a mountain of horological information.
- Its About Time - University of Wisconson
Advances in timekeeping accuracy and atomic clocks. Only one thing is sure: You cant take time for granted. Time slows under intense gravity and extreme velocity. You get near the speed of light, and time just about stops.
- Quartz clocks and watches
How quartz watches and clocks work. The quartz crystal in a modern timekeeper acts as an oscillator, replacing the balance wheel of the mechanical watch. It vibrates at a constant rate, measured in cycles per second. An electronic circuit counts these regular vibrations and translates them to time of day, date, or other time-related information.
Presented by Explain that Stuff.
Electric watch |
- Greenwich Mean Time (GTM)
A clever and easy to use tool to know how late it is, created by Martin Zwernemann.
- World Clock - Time Zones
Current times at many cities around the world.
A service featuring an interactive world atlas, information on local time as well as sunrise and sunset times in several hundred cities, and a database of public holidays worldwide. Easy to see time by timezone. Presented by HAB Software, Hamburg, Germany. Zooming in and out, going against the time, and getting ahead of time.
- The Official US Time
- Calendar Converter
Each date entered will be converted to: Gregorian, Julian, Hebrew, Islamic, Persian, French republican calendar, and Julian day number. Editor: John Walker (Fourmilab, Switzerland).
- Calendars Through The Ages
Explore how we organize our lives in accordance with the movements of the earth, moon, and sun. Systems of counting the days, months, and years.
Roman calendar |
Julian calendar |
- Aging - SocioSite
- Accelerated aging: Werner syndrome (WS) | Progeria - Wikipedia
Disorders characterized by the appearance of premature aging.
- Biorhythm - Wikipedia
- Death Clock
The Death Clock is a friendly reminder that life is slipping away... second by second. This clock reminds you just how short life is.
- Menopause - Wikipedia
The permanent cessation of the primary functions of the human ovaries that marks the transition from reproductive to non-reproductive the end of fertility.
- Hutchison, Elizabeth D.
 A Life Course Perspective - Chapter 1
- Life course approach - Wikipedia
A life course is a sequence of socially defined events and roles that the individual enacts over time.
- Life Course Theory
An explenaition of the historical development, key principles and concepts, including selected research applications. Presented by the Marriage and Family Encyclopedia.
- Sherman, Elaine - Hofstra University, USA
 Aging, Life Cybles and the Sociology of Time
In: Advances in Consumer Research Volume 17, 1990, p. 902-904
- Archiv für Lebenslaufforschung (ALLF)
The German Archive for Life Course Research contains interview data from qualitative social research. The documented and digitised social science data collections can be used for secundary research, learning and teaching.
- Social Cycle Theory - Wikipedia
- Cichelli, Vincenzo / Pugeault-Cicchelli, Catherine / Merico, Maurizio
 Individual and Social Temporalities in American Sociology (1940-2000)
In: Time & Society, 15(1): 141-158.
- Cipriani, Roberto
 The many faces of social time: A sociological approach
In: Time & Society, 22: 5-30.
- Hankcock, P.A. / Hancock, G.M.
 The effects of age, sex, body temperature, heart rate, and time of day on the perception of time in life
In: Time & Society, 23(2): 195-211.
- Lewis, J. David / Weigert, Andrew J.
 The Structures and Meanings of Social Time
In: Social Forces, 60(2): 432-462. December 1981.
dr. Albert Benschop
Social & Behavioral Studies
University of Amsterdam
01st January, 2017