Cyber-English all the Way?
- Auh, Taik-Sup (Korea University, Republic of Korea)
Promoting Multilingualism on the Internet: Korean Experience
Since its birth, the Internet has been dominated by the English language and North-American culture. In a world of five to eight thousand different ethnic groups who reside in approximately 160 nations states speaking 5,000 distinct languages, some language must be the common language of the Internet. Many people believe that English must be default the standard language on the Internet. There are clear indications of English becoming a lingua franca in the cyberspace. The autor summarizes the advantages of multicultural and multilingual Internet. He argues that multilingualism on the Internet is a necessary, if not the sufficient, condition for transforming an ephemeral (=unstable and transitory) cybersociety into a robust one.
- Denglish - Verein Deutsche Sprache
Arguments on the German language. The Association of the German Language don't want a "pure" German language, but they also want to reduce the penetration of english words into the German language.
- Fleisch, Barbies 
English ist keine Weltsprache - es gibt viele englische Sprachen
- Flynn, Mary Kathleen 
Nations fear English language dominance on Net
The march of American culture across the planet has been done with Mickey Mouse, McDonald's Hamburgers, and the internet. And many governments fear this American imperialism. CNN correspondent Flynn some of the attempts to protect the national language and culture from being swamped by English words and American influences.
- Horvath, John 
Die Lingua Franca des Netzes
German essay on the fate of English as a world language. The globalizing effect of communication systems has created new sensibility for existing language barriers. Many people think that these problems can only be solved by creating a lingua franca. And many people believe that English is already a lingua franca. Can English really be a lingua franca, or is multi-linguality the next stage on the Internet?
- Internet World Users by Language
- Lebert, Marie 
Multilingualism on the Web
The internet transcends limitations of time, distances and borders. But the main language of the internet has been English. Although the use of other languages is steadily increasing, and there's still an English hegemony today. Lebert expecs that the distribution of languages on the internet will correspondend to the language distribution on the planet, and free translation software in all languages will be available for instantaneous translation of any website. She analyses what has to be done before multilingualism can be really effective.
- Lockard, Joe 
In: Bad Subjects, Issue # 24, February 1996.
An essay that is not "Anti-English, but tries to argue "that English must be practiced as an open field rather than a linguistic prisonhouse where involuntary anglophones do hard time behind the steel bars of alien grammar." But he also argues "that in practice English is not home for increasing millions of cyber-citizens or cyber-wannabes who cannot access the nets easily or at all because their languages are not the net's primary operating language."
- Maceviciute, Elena 
Multilingual Virtual World: Languages on the Internet
- Multilingual Information Society programme (MLIS)
Directorate-General XIII - Telecommunications, Information Market and Research. MLIS sets out to support the construction of an infrastructure for European language resources; to mobilise and expand the language industries; to promote the use of advanced language tools in the European public sector. Companies, public sector organisations, the language industries and citizens can benefit from this programme.
- Nunberg, Geoffrey 
Will the Internet always Speak English?
In: American Prospects, 11(10), March-April 2000.
The Web is dominated by English. In 1999 about 85% of the text on Web pages was in English. Although the overall proportion of English has demished since then, there's no question that the proportion of Englsh will remain disproportionately high for some time to come.Some view the prospect of an English-dominated Web with a certain alarm. The French President Jacques Chirac described the prevalence of English on the internet as a "major risk for humanity", which threatens to imposte linguistic and cultural uniformity on the world. Nurnberg however argues that it is a mistake to assume that the linguistic effects of the internet can be measured in raw percantages of global language use. "What matters is not simply how widely a language is used, but why and when people use it and how it figures into their sense of social identity."
- Treanor, Paul
Language Futures Europe
Treanor created a site on the language futures of Europe. It contains links on language policy, multilingualism, global language structures, and the dominance of English. It starts with a comment on the structures of language: then texts/essays, and sections on EU policy, national policies, and research sites. Finally there are links on the "monolingual movement" in the United States.on language policy, linguistic identity in Europe.
- Tsuda, Yukio  (Nagoya University, Japan)
English Hegemony and English Divide
The use of English is very much taken for granted in international communication today. Tsuda argues that it should be examined as a problem of linguistic hegemony. The dominance of English causes not only linguistic and communicative inequality, but also the feelings of anxiety and insecurity especially on the part of the non-English-speaking people. In this paper Tsuda categorizes the linguistic stuides of the global spread of English into three different positions: pro-hegemonic, functional/ideological and critical/transformative.
- Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights [includes versions in other languages]
Barcelona, june 1996.
- Antonym Finder and Synonym Thesaurus
- Book of Clichés, The
Phrases to say in times of trouble, that you might want to repeat until believe. Editor: Sybe Visser (Netherlands).
- Dictionary of the Gods
An unofficial glossary of the gods, monsters, and other entities of the subgenius mythos. Editor: John Searcy.
- Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) revised fourth edition.
- Dictionary of PC Hardware and Data Communications Terms
A comprehensive dictionary that provides complete descriptions of complex terms in two of the most volatile and interesting areas of computer development: personal computers and networks. It contains up-to-date information about everything from a common item like "batteries" to an obscure font technology called "Speedo." Editor: Mitchell Shnier.
- E.L. Easton
Materials for reading, writing, speaking, listening to English, Spanish, Latin, Italian, German, Russian, Albanian, Polish, Chinese.
Free On-line Dictionary of Computing. A searchable dictionary of acronyms, jargon, programming languages, tools, architecture, operating systems, networking, theory, conventions, standards, mathematics, telecomms, electronics, institutions, companies, projects, products, history, in fact anything to do with computing. Created by: Denis Howe.
- Glossary of Internet Terms - by: Matisse Enzer
- Glossary of Social Science Computer and Social Science Data Terms
An on-line glossary of about 100 terms used in social science data archives. Edited by the University of San Diego-California.
- Glossary of Social Science - Frank Elwell
- Glossary of Sociological Terms
An attempt from New Zealand to inform us on the basic concepts of social sciences. Each explanation is accompanied by some internet links. From "agency" to "xenophobia" (and more than 250 concepts in between).
- HTML, the complete guide
- Humanities And Social Science Electronic Thesaurus (HASSET)
Excellent online thesaurus of terms used in the ESRC Data Archive at Essex University data catalog "Biron". Also an excellent social science thesaurus apart from its ability to search Biron.
- In Other Words
A searchable lexicon of the Humanities.
- Jargon File Resources
It indexes all the WWW resources associated with the Jargon File and its print version, The New Hacker's Dictionary. It's as official as anything associated with the Jargon File gets. You can browse or search this comprehensive compendium of hacker slang illuminating many aspects of hackish tradition, folklore, and humor. Editor: Eric S. Raymond et al.
- Literary Vocabulary
An alphabetical glossary of literary terms and their definitions.
- Longman Dictionaries
For English language students, teachers and reaserchers. You'll find word games, study exercises, lesson plans, information about Longman dictionaries and information for linguistic research.
- Meyers Lexikon - Das Wissen A-Z
Offers more than 44.000 articles and 12.000 links. The database is searchable. It supports full boolean operators and syntax. Search terms may be truncated with an asterisk (e.g. hyper*).
- Multimedia Sociology Lexicon - University of Firenze.
The project aims at summarizing a Sociology Lexicon in a short number of words (101), but long enough to be complete. But as soon as you enter the program, a voice will warn you: "This is not a dictionary...".
An alphabetical reference guide to technical, cultural, and humorous terms related to the internet. Editor: Seth T. Ross.
- Netlingo - an internet dictionary
- New Hacker's Dictionary
And here seems to be the original hackers dictionary (by Eric Raymond).
- OneLook Dictionaries
Searches in 66+ general and specialized English dictionaries simultaneously. You can pick specific dictionaries from a grouping of subject-specific dictionaries. From computer and science dictionaries to sports and religion dictionaries to general dictionaries. Editor: Robert K. Ware.
- Online Dictionary of the Social Sciences - Athabasca University and ICAAP
A fully searchable social science dictionary with entries covering the discipines of sociology, criminology, political science and women's study. Authors: Robert Drislane and Gary Parkinson.
- Online Slang Dictionary - A Collobarative Project
- Rap Dictionary
The totally unofficial rap dictionary by: Patrick "Tricky" Atoon and Niels "Jax" Jansen. Rap slang dictionary, references to hip hop resources and much more. For people who don't come from the Ghetto but like to listen to Rap. Looks great and feels like 'nutt'. The database is searchable:
- Red Feather Dictionary of Critical Social Science, The
A Teaching Dictionary of Key Words for Progressive, Radical, Critical, Marxist, Feminist, Left-Liberal as well as Postmodern Scholars and Students in Sociology, Philosophy, Economics, History, Social Psychology, Political Science and Anthropology as well as Religion and Theology. Editor: T.R. Young.
- Search Engine Terms
In English, French, Italian, Germa, Spanish, Dutch, and Serbian.
- Skeptic's Dictionary, The by Robert T. Carroll
"Wherein may be found definitions and opinionated essays on matters occult, paranormal, supernatural and pseudoscientific with references to skeptical materials on subjects from acupuncture to zombis."
- Slang/Not Slang dictionary, The
- Synonym Dictionary of English
A searchable dictionary of English synonyms and classes.
- Webref: Social Sciences
Glossaries of terms related to sociology, psychology, political sciences, archeology and anthropology.
- Urban Dictionary
A cross-referenced glossary of Internet terms designed for fast lookup. Organized alphabetically and by topic.
- Dictionaries - IPL (Internet Public Library).
- Dictionaries - Martin Ramsch (Passau, Germany).
- Dictionaries, Thesauri and Glossaries - Univ. of Waterloo Library.
- List of Dictionaries - Editor: Jürgen Fëus (Paderborn, Germany).
- On-line Dictionaries
An index of on-line dictionaries, thesauri, grammars and other reference works pertaining to words and phrases. Preference in selection has been given to free online dictionaries of high quality, useful to specialists and translators. Downloadable and subscription material are listed if exceptionally rare, unusually well-executed. It includes a few inceptive word lists of languages, otherwise not represented in the index, as an encouragement to continued development. Editor: Robert Beard (Chair of the Russian Program at Bucknell University).
- Online Dictionaries
A comprehensive index on dictionaries and related sources. Institut für Maschinelle Sprachverarbeitung (IMS), Stuttgart.
- Specialized Dictionaries - Robert Beard.
- NASA Thesaurus (1998 Edition)
The NASA Thesaurus contains the authorized subject terms by which the documents in the NASA STI Databases are indexed and retrieved. It comprises two volumes. The 'Hierarchical Listing With Definitions' contains all subject terms and USE cross references currently approved for use, and displays the full hierarchical structure for each term. Over 17,700 terms, 3,832 definitions, and approximately 4,000 USE references are contained in the Hierarchical Listing. The 'Rotated Term Display' is a ready reference tool which provides thousands of additional access points to the thesaurus terminology. It contains the postable terms and nonpostable terms found in the Hierarchical Listing arranged in a KWIC (key-word-in-context) index.
- Roget's Thesaurus
A catalog of English words and phrases that can be accessed by keyword searching
or by browsing an outline which groups words by similarity of meaning. Originally
published in 1852 by Dr. Peter Mark Roget under the title, Thesaurus of English
Words and Phrases, Classified and Arranged so as to Facilitate the Expression of
Ideas and Assist in Literary Composition. Provided by MICRA Inc. and the Gutenberg Project.
- Roget's Thesaurus Search Form - ARTFL Project (Univ. of Chicago).
Search the headwords or full text of Roget's Thesaurus version 1.02 (supplemented: July 1991) released to the public domain by
MICRA, Inc. and the Gutenberg Project. Internal cross references are represented as clickable hyper-text links.
Acronym and Abbreviations
An acronym is a word formed from the initial letters of the words of a compound
- Acronym and Abbreviation Server - University College Cork, Ireland
Here you can find out what acronyms like URL, HTML, GOPHER etc. mean. You can search for acronyms (and see its expansions), search for a word in the expansions (and see the related acronyms), or submit an acronym for inclusion in the database.
The index is searchable. FU Berlin, Germany.
A glossary of computer oriented abbreveviations and acronyms. Created by Irving & Richard Kind.
- Canonical Abbreviation / Acronym List
Compiled by James Marshall. If you don't understand these kind of lines: "GOK why your GF is an EDP in F2F relations". If I Tell You What It Means, Will You Buy Me A Drink? (IITYWIMWYBMAD).
- Internet Begrippen
A Dutch acronym list for the Internet. Editor: Albert Benschop, Amsterdam.
- Wiley: Scientific and technical acronyms, symbols, and abbreviations (commercial, so you have to pay)
Bilingual Dictionaries: Translations
- Ethnologue - Languages of the World
This massive catelogue, edited by Barbara F. Grimes and provided by the Summer Institute of Linguistics (Dallas, Texas, USA), contains links between more than 6,700 languages and the 228 countries in which they are spoken. You can look up languages by country, or consult an alphabetic list of languages to see how many people speak them in each country. There's also a 'Language Family Index', which groups languages by shared structural and lexical innovations. Language information can also include number of speakers in the world, dialects, linguistic typology, and availability of the Bible. Country information includes the languages spoken, and can also
include various demographic and geographic information. The site can be searched from the main countries page.
- Free Translator
A selection of the best free translators, dictionaries and language courses on the web.
- I Love Languages
A comprehensive catalog of language-related internet resources: dictionaries, language tutorials, spoken samples of languages and much more. The mission is to list, categorize, and promote internet resources related to language learning, education, and use. Editor: Tyler Chambers.
- Inter Active Terminology for Europe (IATE)
A multi-lingual terminological database. The information it contains is drafet in 24 languages. Choose your source language and the target language, and enter a query.
- Internet Dictionary Project
The goal of this project is to create royalty-free translating dictionaries through the help of the Internet's citizens. French-Italian-German-Portuguese-Spanish to and from English
A directory of bilingual and mutilingual dictionaries.
- LOGOS - Multilingual E-Translation Portal
A freely-accessible database, compiled without any form of public contribution, updated and corrected by a network of professional translators. The dictionary currently has almost 4 million entries (total for all languages) and contains +7.5 million words (Catalan, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, Frens, German, Hungarian, Italian, Latino, Norwegian, Polish). A great service.
An on-line multilingual translation dictionary.
- Online Language Dictionaries and Translators
Since 1996 "Bigben" attempts to place as many online dictionaries at your disposal as possible.
- Travlang's Translating Dictionaries
- Translation and drafting aids
A service of the European Commission.Service,
- Translator's home companion, The
A very useful source of information for the professional translator and those in need of translation services.
- Yamada Language Guides
Electronic guides with information on 115 languages, archives with texts, pictures and sounds, and many software (126 fonts for 40 languages).
- An Englishman's Difficulties with the Dutch
A funny description of the problems of an Englishman learning Dutch. Stories on the "IJ" disaster and the "-isch" stupidity.
- Bargoens - An introduction to Dutch slang, in Dutch.
- Beginners' Guid to Offline Language Materials: Dutch
A list with books and other valuable offline materials for the beginning student of Dutch. Compiled and presented by Reinhard F. Hahn.
- Dutch 101 - A written introduction to Dutch grammar and vocabulary, in English.
- Dutch-English Study Group
A group that is primarily geared towards Dutch or English "independent" learners, those learning on their own who have little to no contact with native speakers or helpers.
- Een cursus nieuwe spelling - René Verbrugge.
The international alphabet for deaf-mutes.
- Go Dutch
A weblog for students of Dutch and non-native speakers.
- History of the Gutch language
An interactive guide on the history of the Dutch language (in Dutch, German and English), presented by researchers at the University of Vienna.
- Holland Institute of Generative Linguistics (HIL)
A research and training institute in the field of generative linguistics. HIL was established as a result of increasing collaboration among theoretical linguists at Leiden University, the University of Amsterdam, and the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. The focus of inquiry in HIL is on theoretical research in the fields of syntax, semantics, phonology and morphology. The site contains information on the research and training projects, publications of the HIL, and news on upcoming conferences and workshops.
- Proverbs and Sayings
Jeroen Egmond has build a database with proverbs and sayings. If you want to know the meaning of a certain proverb or the the equivalent of a proverb in another language, then you can use the queryfunction of this database.You can also search on proverbs which have the same description as the matched proverb on a query. Just enter the query are you are used to. In the results you'll see extra links. Pressing any of these will give a way to search for proverbs with the same description as the proverb you have chosen.
- Mailinglist Netherlands
Anybody learning Dutch can join to improve his or her Dutch. For this purpose native speakers, and non-native speakers with a fair command of Dutch, are invited to answer questions and correct mistakes, if any.
- Nederlandse Taalunie
- Onze Taal
Language advice and news. From: Genootschap Onze Taal (Den Haag, Netherlands).
- Speak Dutch
Learn Dutch from native speakers in an online course.
- Taal op het WWW
Editor: Henk Schotel.
Pages on Dutch language (in English and Dutch). Editor: Marcel Heerink.
A compilation of dictionaries and translation resources categorized in languages and subjects.
- Van Dale online
The best Dutch dictionary. Includes a section with language news.
- Dictionary of English slang and colloquialisms used in the UK
A lexical reference system whose design is inspired by psycholinguistinc theories of human lexical memory. English nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are organizaed into synonym sets, each representing one underlying lexical concept. WordNet has been developeted by the Cognitive Science Laboratory at Princeton University under direction of Professior George A. Miller.
- Norwegian Language Council
Norsk språkråd is the Norwegian government's advisory body in matters pertaining to the Norwegian language and language planning. (Norweggian, English, French and German version).
Online courses to learn the Turkish language; includes listening exercises recorded by native speakers, grammer, online dictionary, pronunciation guide, vocabulary and information about Turkey.
- Catholic Encyclopedia, The - Sponsored by New Advent.
- Diderot and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers
Includes contributions of the most prominent philosophes such as Voltaire, Rousseau, d'Alembert, Marmontel, d'Holbach and Turgot. The online version will eventually include all seventeen volumes of text and eleven volumes of plates that composed the first edition. Presented by the ARTFL Project at the University of Chicago.
- Encarta Encyclopedia
A free encyclopedia that contains 16,000 articles and more than 2,200 photos, illustrations, maps, charts, and tables. MSN Premiere subscribers can access the more complete Deluxe Online Encyclopedia, for which a 7 day free trial is available. In the Encata World English Dictionary you can listen to audio pronunciations and read up-to-date descriptions of how each word is used today. The topographical maps in Encata Online Atlas reproduces the lokal wordt as it really is.
- Encyclopædia Brittannica
The oldest and largest genereal reference in the English language. A search on this site will produce results from the Encyclopædia, as well as a directory of web sites, selected articles from magazines like Newsweek.
- Encyclopedia.com - Electric Library.
More than 50,000 articles from The Consise Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (Third Edition) have been assembled to provide free, quick and useful information on almost any topic. It covers all major fields of knowledge: politics, law, art, history, sports, literature, geography, science, and medicine. Extensive crosss-referencing allows users to expand their research through direct links to other articles within the Encyclopedia site and to other related web sites.
- Encyclopedia Mythica
Mythologies (Chinese, Etruscan, Greel, Japanese, Latvian, Mayan, Native American, Norse, Persian, Roman, and other), folklore, bestiary, heroid legends, Occult and mysticism, ancient (pagan) feast days. Created by Micha F. Lindemans.
- Encyclopedia Smithsonian
The Smithsonian Institution receives a great many public inquiries covering a wide range of topics. The Encyclopedia Smithsonian features anwers to frequently asked questions about Smithsonian and links to Smithsionian resources from A to Z. New information will be added continually. Covers topics such as armed forces history, anthropology, mineral sciences, musical history, physical sciences, servicces, textiles conservation, transport history, and vertebrate zoology.
A hybrid portal / concise encyclopedia, with fun interactivities for learning and exercising the mind. Daily articles introduce new topics in the arts, humanities, science, and technology, and links for further study. Weekly articles introduce new topics and provide links to the best sites for further study. Forums are provided for discussion about the arts, humanities, science, and technology. A goot site for students and inquiring minds to start their quest for knowledge on the Internet. And also a place to have fun with puzzles, games, and quizzes.
- Free Internet Encyclopedia
Internet accessible information on a variety of topics arranged in an encyclopediac manner. Created by: Clif Davis and Margaret Adamson Fincannon.
- Funk and Wagnalls Encyclopedia
complete Funk & Wagnalls unabridged 29-volume encyclopedia, enriched with multimedia: animations, sounds, music, flags, maps, virtual tours, and more. Also, access the Reuters World News Service and Random House Webster's College Dictionary with over 165,000 entries, Roget's 21st Century Thesaurus, and an Interactive World Atlas.
- Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia Online
Online version of the popular Grolier Encyclopedia. A subscription is required for use, although a free trial is available. It contains 37,000 articles from the renowned Academic American Encyclopedia and includes pictures, mapos, sounds, flags, timelines, and a yearbook. It also features a comphehensive atlas and the Grolier Internet Index, which links specific articles to editorially-selected web sites. The Brain Jam is a digital magazine for the knowledge generation.
- Information Please
Online version of the popular almanac which you can browse by topic or search. It includes the Random House Websters College Dictionary and the Columbia Encyclopedia.
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
A dynamic encyclopedia which is responsive to new research. Each entry is maintained and kept up to date by an expert or group of experts in the field. The encyclopedia is a project of the Metaphysics Research Lan at the Center for the Study of Language and Information at Stanford University. Principal Editor: Edward N. Zalta.
An annotated listing of subject-oriented encyclopedias available on the Internet.
- Encyclopedias - IPL (Internet Public Library).
Language, Style and Grammar Guides
- Referencing: Citation of Electronic Sources (SocioSite)
- Grammar Handbook - University of Illinois.
The Handbook explains and illustrates the basic grammatical rules concerning parts of speech, phrases, clauses, sentences and sentence elements, and common problems of usage.
- Strunk's Elements of Style
It includes sections on Elementary Rules of Usage, Elementary Rules of Composition, A Few Matters of Form, Words and Expressions Commonly Misused, and Words Commonly Misspelled.
- Web of On-line Grammars, A
A page of links to online grammar resources for more than twenty languages. The criteria for inclusion is that the grammars are accurate and useful for learning the language they describe. The offerings range from "Survival Bengali" to "An Integral Dutch Course" to Beard's own "On-line Russian Reference Grammar." An additional page of morphology links connects to sites that will conjugate verbs, assist in declensions, and provide morphological analysis in response to user input. Editor: Robert Beard (Chair of the Russian Program at Bucknell University).
- Web Writing Style Resources
Journalists and academics have their own style guides. But what resources are available for Web page writers? Besides the wide range of HTML and other coding resources, there are several writing style guides for people whose copy graces the Web. Here you find a collection of style guides.
- Aaron Fuegi's Collected Quotations
A personal collection.
Brijbhushan J. Gupta presents his own collection of aphorisms on economics, religions, society, morality, hard work, morality, god etc.
- Bartlett's Familiar Quotations
A search engine for words & authors, and a chronological list of primary authors. Here you can discover who said what and when they said it. The collection ends with the 19th Century.
- BFM, The Famous Quotes
A large variety of quotes structured in categories like movies, sport, politics, women and Blackadder.
- Frases Célebres - NoName Magazine
- Good Quotes by Famous People
A small collection of good quotes, from Gabriel Robins.
- Infectious Memes
More than 200 quotes that might infect your sane and properly organized mind.
- Latijnse Citaten
Many Latin quotes and their Dutch translation, by Bouwe Brouwer.
- Oneliners and proverbs - In English and Dutch.
- Quotations about science, anti-science and more [Moved to ...?]
Like this one: "An atheist is a man who has no invisible means of support" [John Buchan].
- Quotations Home Page
Contains thousands of quotations, old and new, familiar and obscure, humorous and pompous, ironic and maybe even a little profound. A place for enjoyment, enlightenment, exploration and general reference. Editor: Steve Spanoudis.
- The Quotations Page
Michael Moncur's Quotations Page features a rearchable database of over 15,000 humorous quotations. If you're looking for a quote on a particular subject or author, try this one.
- Words to Remember: Quotes
A collection of 100 fabulous quotes selected by Albert Benschop.
dr. Albert Benschop
Social & Behavioral Studies
University of Amsterdam
18th February, 2012